Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks

Chapter 296-863, WAC

Effective Date: 04/01/07

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WAC 296-863-400

Operations

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Your Responsibility

To operate your PITs safely

You must

General Operations

Protect employees around PITs

Operate PITs safely

Make sure PIT loads are carried safely

Meet these requirements when the operator leaves the normal operating position
Meet these requirements when operating near railroad tracks
Special Operations

Meet this requirement when using motorized hand trucks

Meet these requirements when using elevators
Meet these requirements when using dockboards (bridge plates)
Meet these requirements when loading or unloading railroad cars with a PIT
Meet these requirements when loading or unloading highway trucks with PITs
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fueled PITs
Meet these additional requirements when operating liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fueled PITs
Personnel lifting
Make sure work platforms and PITs used to lift people meet these requirements
Operate PITs using elevated work platforms safely

 

WAC 296-863-40005

Protect employees around PITs

You must

  • Make sure operators use restraint devices, such as seatbelts or lap-bars, when they are provided on the PIT.
  • Make sure you don't allow people:
    • - Under the elevated part of any PIT, whether it's loaded or empty
    • - To put any part of their body between the uprights of the mast
      or
    • - Outside the running lines of the PIT.
  • Make sure you don't allow unauthorized people to ride on PITS.
  • Make sure people riding on PITs have a safe place to ride.
  • Make sure you don't allow stunt driving or horseplay.
  • Make sure PITs aren't driven up to anyone in front of a bench or other fixed object.
  • Make sure access to fire aisles, stairways, and fire equipment is kept clear.
  • Make sure there's sufficient headroom under overhead installations such as lights, pipes, and sprinkler systems to safely operate PITs.

Reference:

  • PIT operations may cause the airborne concentration levels of carbon monoxide gas to increase. You have to keep the concentration levels below the levels specified in
    Chapter 296-841 WAC
    , Respiratory Hazards.

WAC 296-863-40010

Operate PITs safely

You must

  • Operate PITs according to the manufacturer's instructions.
  • Make sure PIT operators do all of the following:
    • - Obey all traffic regulations, including authorized workplace speed limits.
    • - Yield the right of way to ambulances, fire trucks, and other vehicles in emergency situations.
    • - Keep a safe distance of approximately 3 truck lengths from the PIT ahead.
    • - Look in the direction they're going and keep a clear view of their path of travel.
    • - Slow down and sound the horn at cross aisles and other locations where vision is obstructed.
    • - Don't pass other PITs traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or other dangerous locations.
    • - Keep a safe distance from the edge of ramps or platforms while on any of the following:
        • Elevated docks
        • Elevated platforms
        • Freight cars
  • Make sure operators keep PITs under control at all times, including doing all of the following:
    • - Drive at a speed that allows the PIT to be stopped safely
    • - Drive more slowly on wet or slippery floors
    • - Reduce speed to a safe level while turning
    • - Avoid driving over loose objects.

WAC 296-863-40015

Make sure PIT loads are carried safely

You must

  • 1) Make sure loads are stable, safe and within the rated load capacity of the PIT.
  • 2) Do both of the following when picking up a load:
      • Place the load engaging means under the load as far as possible.
      • Tilt the mast carefully backwards to stabilize the load.
  • 3) Make sure not to tilt the load engaging means forward when it's elevated unless:
      • Picking up a load
        or
      • Depositing a load on a rack or stack.
  • 4) Do both of the following when traveling with a load:
      • Keep the load trailing if it obstructs the operator's forward view.
      • Travel with the load upslope when climbing or descending slopes of more than 10 percent.
  • 5) Do both of the following when climbing a slope:
      • Tilt the load and load engagement means backwards if necessary to stabilize the load
        and
      • Raise the load and load engagement means only as far as necessary to clear the surface.
  • 6) Make sure PITS with attachments are operated as partially loaded trucks, even if they're not carrying a load.

WAC 296-863-40020

Meet these requirements when the operator leaves the normal operating position

You must

  • Make sure operators do the following when getting off the PIT:
    • - Fully lower the load engaging means
    • - Neutralize the controls
    • - Set the brakes.
  • Make sure operators do the following when leaving a PIT unattended:
    • - Fully lower the load engaging means
    • - Neutralize the controls
    • - Shut off power
    • - Set the brakes
    • - Block the wheels, if parked on an incline.

Note

Note:

  • A PIT is unattended when the operator:
    • - Is more than 25 feet away
      or
    • - Can't see the PIT.

WAC 296-863-40025

Meet these requirements when operating near railroad tracks

You must

  • Make sure PITs are driven diagonally across railroad tracks, whenever possible.
  • Make sure PITs are parked 8 feet 6 inches or more from the center of any railroad tracks.

WAC 296-863-40030

Meet this requirement when using motorized hand trucks

You must

  • Make sure motorized hand trucks enter elevators and other confining areas with the load end forward.

WAC 296-863-40035

Meet these requirements when using elevators

You must

  • Do both of the following when driving PITs onto an elevator:
    • - Approach slowly
    • - Enter the elevator squarely after the elevator car is leveled.
  • Do all the following after the PIT is positioned on the elevator:
    • - Neutralize the controls
    • - Shut off the power
    • - Set the brakes.

WAC 296-863-40040

Meet these requirements when using dockboards (bridge plates)

You must

  • Make sure dockboards aren't overloaded:
    • - Make sure they're strong enough to carry the load imposed on them.
    • - Make sure loads don't exceed the dockboard's rated capacity.
  • Do the following when using dockboards:
    • - Drive slowly and carefully over dockboards.
    • - Properly secure dockboards before driving on them.
  • Make sure powered dockboards meet the design and construction requirements of U.S. Department of Commerce Commercial Standard CS 202-56 (1961) Industrial Lifts and Hinged Loading Ramps.
  • Do the following when using portable dockboards:
    • - Use anchors or other devices that will prevent slipping.
    • - Make sure they have handholds or other effective means for safe handling.

WAC 296-863-40045

Meet these requirements when loading or unloading railroad cars with a PIT

You must

  • Check the railroad car flooring for breaks or weakness before driving on it.
  • Set the brakes and use wheel stops or other recognized positive protection to keep railcars from moving:
    • - During loading or unloading operations
      or
    • - While dockboards (bridge plates) are in position.
  • Meet these requirements when using PITs to open or close freight car doors:
    • - The PIT has to have an approved device specifically designed to open and close doors.
    • - The device has to be designed so that force will be applied to the door parallel to door travel.
    • - The PIT operator has to be trained to use the device and have full view of the operation.
    • - People must be kept clear while the door is being moved.

WAC 296-863-40050

Meet these requirements when loading or unloading highway trucks with PITs

You must

  • Check the truck or trailer flooring for breaks or weakness before driving on it.
  • Prevent movement of trucks or trailers during loading or unloading by:
    • - Setting the brakes
      and
    • - Chocking or blocking the wheels.
Exemption

Exemption:

  • You can use mechanical means instead of wheel chocks or blocks to secure the trailer to the loading dock.
  • Wheel chocks or blocks aren't required when:
    • - The mechanical means prevents the trailer from moving away from the dock.
    • - The mechanical equipment is used and maintained as recommended by the manufacturer.
    • - Damaged mechanical equipment is immediately removed from service.

Note

Note:

You may need to use fixed jacks to keep a semi-trailer that's not coupled to a tractor from up ending during loading or unloading.

WAC 296-863-40055

Meet these additional requirements when operating liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fueled PITs

You must

  • Make sure you don't park PITs near:
    • - Sources of heat, open flames, or similar ignition sources
      or
    • - Open pits, such as service pits, that don't have adequate ventilation.
  • Make sure PITs stored inside a garage don't have:
    • - A leak in the fuel system
    • - Fuel containers filled beyond the maximum filling capacity.

Reference:

  • See WAC 296-24-47505(12), Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases, for maximum filling capacities.

WAC 296-863-40060

Make sure work platforms and PITs used to lift people meet these requirements

You must

  • Make sure work platforms:
    • - Are securely fastened to the lifting carriage or forks
    • - Have standard guardrails and toeboards on all sides.
  • Guard the area between the platform and the PIT mast to prevent employee contact with chains or other shear points.
  • Make sure PITs used to elevate a work platform have a lift mechanism that can't drop faster than 135 feet per minute in the event of a system failure.
  • Make sure the lifting carriage or forks are prevented from tilting.

Note

Note:

  • Examples of how this may be accomplished are the use of:
    • - A control lever that prevents the inadvertent movement
      or
    • - Use of a strap or other device to hold the control lever in position.

You must

  • Make sure PITs with controls (vertical only, or horizontal and vertical) that can be elevated with the lifting carriage or forks, have a way for people on the platform to shut off power to the PIT.

Note

Note:

You can find the minimum requirements for standard railings of various types of construction in WAC 296-24-75011, Railings, toeboards and cover specifications.

WAC 296-863-40065

Operate PITs using elevated work platforms safely

You must

  • Make sure the PIT operator:
    • - Is attending the lift equipment when workers are on the platform
    • - Is in the normal operating position while raising or lowering the platform.

Note

Note:

  • A PIT is unattended when the operator:
    • - Is more than 25 feet away
      or
    • - Can't see the PIT.

 

You must

  • Make sure the operator does not move the PIT from one point to another while workers are on the platform.
    • - The operator may inch or maneuver the PIT at very low speed with workers on the platform.

 

 

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