Safety Standards for Agriculture


Electrical
Chapter 296-307 WAC, Part T

 

WAC

296-307-360 Electrical.
296-307-36005
What does this part cover?
296-307-36010
What definitions apply to this part?
296-307-362
General electrical requirements.
296-307-36203
What electrical equipment must be approved?
296-307-36206
How must electrical equipment safety be determined?
296-307-36209
What requirements apply to guarding live parts?
296-307-36212
What workspace must be provided?
296-307-36215
What general requirements apply to splices?
296-307-36218
What protection must be provided against combustible materials?
296-307-36221
How must electrical equipment be marked?
296-307-36224
How must disconnecting means be marked?
296-307-36227
What access and working space must be provided for electrical equipment over 600 volts, nominal, or less?
296-307-36230
What access and working space must be provided for electrical equipment over 600 volts, nominal?
296-307-364
Electrical installation and maintenance.
296-307-36403
How must flexible cords and cables be installed and maintained?
296-307-36406
How must attachment plugs and receptacles be installed and maintained?
296-307-36409
What must employees do when equipment causes electrical shock?
296-307-36412
What grounding and bonding requirements apply to equipment installation and maintenance?
296-307-36415
What requirements apply to disconnecting means?
296-307-36418
What requirements apply to identification and load rating of electrical equipment?
296-307-36421
How must equipment be installed in wet locations?
296-307-366
Wiring design and protection.
296-307-36603
How must grounded and grounding conductors be used and identified?
296-307-36606
What ampere rating must outlet devices have?
296-307-36609
What requirements apply to conductors?
296-307-36612
What design an protection requirements apply to service-entrances?
296-307-36615
What overcurrent protection must be provided?
296-307-36618
What premises wiring systems must be grounded?
296-307-36621
Must the conductor be grounded for AC premises wiring?
296-307-36624
What general requirements apply to grounding conductors?
296-307-36627
Must the path to the ground be continuous?
296-307-36630
What supports, enclosures, and equipment must be grounded?
296-307-36633 How must fixed equipment be grounded?
296-307-36636
How must high voltage systems be grounded?
296-307-368
Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.
296-307-36803
Does this section apply to factory-assembled equipment?
296-307-36806
What wiring methods must be used for temporary wiring?
296-307-36809
When may cable trays be used?
296-307-36812
What requirements apply to open wiring on insulators?
296-307-36815
What wiring requirements apply to cabinets, boxes, and fittings?
296-307-36818
What requirements apply to switches?
296-307-36821
Where must switchboards and panelboards be located?
296-307-36824
When must conductors be insulated?
296-307-36827
When may flexible cords and cables be used?
296-307-36830
How must flexible cords and cables be identified, spliced, and terminated?
296-307-36833
What requirements apply to multiconductor portable cables?
296-307-36836
When may fixture wires be used?
296-307-36839
What requirements apply to wiring for lighting fixtures, lampholders, lamps, and receptacles?
296-307-36842 What requirements apply to wiring for receptacles, cord connectors and attachment plugs (caps)?
296-307-36845
What requirements apply to wiring for appliances?
296-307-36848
What requirements apply to wiring for motors, motor circuits, and controllers?
296-307-36851
What requirements apply to wiring for transformers?
296-307-36854
What requirements apply to wiring for capacitors?
296-307-36857
How must storage batteries be ventilated?
296-307-36860
What other miscellaneous requirements apply to wiring methods?
296-307-370
Special purpose equipment and installations.
296-307-37003
What requirements apply to cranes, hoists, and runways?
296-307-37006
What requirements apply to elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, and moving walks?
296-307-37009
What requirements apply to the disconnecting means for electric welders?
296-307-37012
What requirements apply to electrically driven or controlled irrigation machines?
296-307-372
Hazardous (classified) locations.
296-307-37203
What does this section cover?
296-307-37206
What classifications apply to this section?
296-307-37209
What equipment, wiring methods, and installations may be used in hazardous locations?
296-307-37212
How must conduit be installed in hazardous locations?
296-307-37215
Which equipment may be used in Division 1 and 2 locations?
296-307-37218
What requirements apply to motors and generators used in hazardous locations?
296-307-374
Special systems.
296-307-37403
What requirements apply to systems over 600 volts, nominal?
296-307-37406
What requirements apply to emergency power systems?
296-307-37409
How are Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 remote control, signaling, and power-limited circuits classified?
296-307-37412
What requirements apply to fire protective signaling systems?
296-307-376
Working on or near exposed energized parts.
296-307-37603
What does this section cover?
296-307-37606
Who may work on energized parts?
296-307-37609
What requirements apply to working near low voltage lines?
296-307-37612
What requirements apply to qualified persons working near overhead lines?
296-307-37615
What requirements apply to vehicles and mechanical equipment near overhead lines?
296-307-37618
What lighting must be provided for employees working near exposed energized parts?
296-307-37621
What requirements apply to working near exposed energized parts in confined spaces?
296-307-37624
What housekeeping requirements apply to working near exposed energized parts?
296-307-37627
Who may defeat an electrical safety interlock?
296-307-378
Safety-related work practices.
296-307-37801
What does this section cover?
296-307-37803
How must employees be trained on safety practices?
296-307-37805
How must safety-related work practices be chosen and used?
296-307-37807
What work practices must be followed for work on exposed deenergized parts?
296-307-37809
Must an employer have a written copy of lockout-tagout procedures?
296-307-37811
What work practices must be followed for deenergizing equipment?
296-307-37813
How must locks and tags be applied?
296-307-37815
What work practices must be followed to verify deenergization?
296-307-37817
What work practices must be followed when reenergizing equipment?
296-307-37819
What safety-related work practices relate to portable electric equipment?
296-307-37821
What safety-related work practices relate to electric power and lighting circuits?
296-307-37823
What safety-related work practices relate to test instruments and equipment?
296-307-37825
What safety-related work practices relate to flammable materials?
296-307-380
Electrical protective equipment.
296-307-38003
How must protective equipment be used?
296-307-38006
What requirements apply to general protective equipment and tools?
296-307-38009
What manufacturing and marking requirements apply to electrical protective devices?
296-307-38012
What electrical requirements apply to electrical protective devices?
296-307-38015
What workmanship and finish requirements apply to electrical protective devices?
296-307-38018
How must electrical protective devices be maintained and used?

WAC 296-307-360 Electrical.

[Recodified as 296-307-360. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-360, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36005 What does this part cover?

(1) Chapter 296-307 WAC Part T covers methods to protect against electrical hazards in agricultural workplaces.

(2) Chapter 296-307 WAC Part T does not cover:

  • Installations in watercraft, or automotive vehicles; or

  • Electric welding. (See chapter 296-307 WAC Part V.)

(3) Unless otherwise provided in this chapter all electrical work, installation, and wire capacities must be according to the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-1973; ANSI C1-1971, and all other applicable standards administered by the department of Labor & Industries.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-36005, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-36005. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36005, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36010 What definitions apply to this part? 

The following definitions apply to this part:

Acceptable” means an installation or equipment that is acceptable to the department and meets the requirements of this section. An installation or equipment is acceptable if:

(1) It is accepted, certified, listed, labeled, or otherwise determined to be safe by a nationally recognized testing laboratory; or

(2) For installations or equipment that no nationally recognized testing laboratory accepts, certifies, lists, labels, or determines to be safe, it is inspected or tested by another federal agency, or by state, municipal, or other local authority responsible for enforcing occupational safety provisions of the National Electrical Code, and complies with the provisions of the National Electrical Code, and complies with the provisions of the National Electrical Code as applied in this section; or

(3) For custom-made equipment or related installations that are designed, fabricated for, and intended for use by a particular customer, it is determined to be safe for its intended use by its manufacturer on the basis of test data that you keep and make available for our inspection.

Accepted” means an installation that has been inspected and certified by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to meet specified plans or procedures of applicable codes.

Bonding jumper” means a reliable conductor that provides the correct electrical conductivity between metal parts that are required to be electrically connected.

Branch circuits” means the part of a wiring system extending beyond the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit. A device not approved for branch circuit protection, such as thermal cutout or motor overload protective device, is not considered as the overcurrent device protecting the circuit.

Certified” means equipment that:

  • Has been tested and found by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to meet nationally recognized standards, or to be safe for use in a specified manner; or

  • Is a kind whose production is periodically inspected by a nationally recognized testing laboratory; and

  • Bears a label, tag, or other record of certification.

Exposed” means a live part that can be accidentally touched or approached nearer than a safe distance. This term applies to parts that are not suitably guarded, isolated, or insulated.

Fixed equipment” means equipment fastened or connected by permanent wiring methods.

Ground” means a conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.

Grounded” means connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.

Isolated” means equipment that is not readily accessible except through special means of access.

Labeled” means equipment that has an attached label, symbol, or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory that:

  • Makes periodic inspections of the production of such equipment; and
  • Whose labeling indicates compliance with nationally recognized standards or tests to determine safe use in a specified manner.

Qualified person” means a person who is familiar with the construction and operation of the equipment and the hazards involved.

Note 1: Whether an employee is considered a “qualified person” depends on various circumstances in the workplace. It is possible and likely for an individual to be considered “qualified” with regard to certain equipment in the workplace, but “unqualified” as to other equipment.

Note 2: An employee undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a qualified person is considered a qualified person for the performance of those duties.

Shock hazard” exists at an accessible part in a circuit between the part and ground, or other accessible parts if the potential is more than 42.4 volts peak and the current through a 1,500 ohm load is more than 5 milliamperes.

Weatherproof” means constructed or protected so that exposure to the weather does not interfere with successful operation. Rainproof, raintight, or watertight equipment may be considered weatherproof where weather conditions other than wetness, such as snow, ice, dust, or temperature extremes, are not a factor.

[Recodified as 296-307-36010. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36010, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-362 General electrical requirements.

[Recodified as 296-307-362. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-362, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36203 What electrical equipment must be approved? 

The conductors and equipment required or permitted by this section must be approved.

[Recodified as 296-307-36203. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36203, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36206 How must electrical equipment safety be determined?

(1) Electrical equipment must be free from hazards to employees. Safety of equipment must be determined using the following considerations:

(a) Suitability for installation and use according to the requirements of this part. Suitability of equipment for a specific purpose may be shown by listing or labeling for that purpose.

(b) Mechanical strength and durability, including, for parts designed to enclose and protect other equipment, the adequacy of the protection provided.

(c) Electrical insulation.

(d) Heating effects under conditions of use.

(e) Arcing effects.

(f) Classification by type, size, voltage, current capacity, specific use.

(g) Other factors that contribute to the practical safeguarding of employees using or likely to come in contact with the equipment.

(2) Listed or labeled equipment must be used or installed according to any instructions included in the listing or labeling.

[Recodified as 296-307-36206. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36206, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-36209 What requirements apply to guarding live parts?

(1) Unless otherwise indicated, live parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more must be guarded against accidental contact by an approved cabinet or other form of approved enclosure, or by any of the following:

(a) Location in a room, vault, or similar enclosure that is accessible only to qualified persons.

(b) Suitable permanent substantial partitions or screens arranged so that only qualified persons have access to the area within reach of the live parts. Any openings in such partitions or screens must be small enough and located so that employees are not likely to come into accidental contact with live parts or to bring conducting objects into contact with them.

(c) Location on a suitable balcony, gallery, or platform elevated and accessible only to qualified persons.

(d) Elevation of eight feet or more above the floor or other working surface.

(2) In locations where electric equipment would be exposed to physical damage, enclosures or guards must be arranged and be strong enough to prevent damage.

(3) Entrances to rooms and other guarded locations containing exposed live parts must be marked with conspicuous warning signs forbidding unqualified persons to enter.

(4) Electrical repairs must be made only by qualified persons that you authorize.

(5) Fuse handling equipment, insulated for the circuit voltage, must be used to remove or install fuses when the fuse terminals are energized.

(6) Employees must be prohibited from working closely enough to an electric power circuit to contact it unless the employee is protected against electric shock.

Note: The circuit must be protected by deenergizing the circuit and grounding it, by guarding it, by effective insulation, or other means.

(7) In work areas where the exact location of underground electric power lines is unknown, employees using jack-hammers, bars or other hand tools that may contact a line must have insulated protective gloves.

[Recodified as 296-307-36209. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36209, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36212 What workspace must be provided?

(1) When parts are exposed, the minimum clearance for the workspace must be at least six feet six inches high, or at least a radius of three feet wide.

(2) There must be enough clearance to permit at least a 90 opening of all doors or hinged panels.

[Recodified as 296-307-36212. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36212, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36215 What general requirements apply to splices? 

Conductors must be spliced or joined with splicing devices suitable for the use or by brazing, welding, or soldering with a fusible metal or alloy. Soldered splices must first be spliced or joined so they are mechanically and electrically secure without solder and then soldered. (Rosin-core solder should be used instead of acid core solder when joining electrical conductors.) All splices and joints and the free ends of conductors must be covered with an insulation equivalent to that of the conductors or with an insulating device suitable for the purpose.

[Recodified as 296-307-36215. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36215, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36218 What protection must be provided against combustible materials? 

Parts of electric equipment that in ordinary operation produce arcs, sparks, flames, or molten metal must be enclosed or separated and isolated from all combustible material.

[Recodified as 296-307-36218. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36218, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36221 How must electrical equipment be marked? 

All electrical equipment in use must have the manufacturer's name, trademark, or other descriptive marking of the organization responsible for the product on the equipment. Other markings must be provided giving voltage, current, wattage, or other ratings as necessary. The marking must be durable enough to withstand the environment.

[Recodified as 296-307-36221. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36221, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36224 How must disconnecting means be marked? 

Each disconnecting means required by this part for motors and appliances must be legibly marked to indicate its purpose, unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident. Each service, feeder, and branch circuit, at its disconnecting means or overcurrent device, must be legibly marked to indicate its purpose, unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident. These markings must be durable enough to withstand the environment involved.

[Recodified as 296-307-36224. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36224, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36227 What access and working space must be provided for electrical equipment of 600 volts, nominal, or less? 

Sufficient access and working space must be provided and maintained about all electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment.

(1) Unless otherwise indicated, the dimension of the working space in the direction of access to live parts operating at 600 volts or less and likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while alive must be at least that indicated in the table below. Also, workspace must be at least 30 inches wide in front of the electric equipment. Distances must be measured from the live parts if they are exposed, or from the enclosure front or opening if the live parts are enclosed. Concrete, brick, or tile walls are considered grounded. Working space is not required behind assemblies such as dead-front switchboards or motor control centers where there are no renewable or adjustable parts such as fuses or switches on the back and where all connections are accessible from other directions.

Working Clearances

 

Minimum clear distance for condition (ft.)

Nominal voltage to ground

(a)

(b)

(c)

0-150

13

13

3

151-600

13

3 1/2

4

Conditions:

(a) Exposed live parts on one side and no live or grounded parts on the other side of the working space, or exposed live parts on both sides guarded by suitable wood or other insulating material. Insulated wire or insulated busbars operating at 300 volts or less are not considered live parts.

(b) Exposed live parts on one side and grounded parts on the other side.

(c) Exposed live parts on both sides of the workspace (not guarded as in (a)) with the operator between.

(2) Working space required by this part must not be used for storage. When normally enclosed live parts are exposed for inspection or servicing, the working space, if in a passageway or general open space, must be suitably guarded.

(3) At least one entrance of sufficient area must be provided to give access to the working space about electric equipment.

(4) Where there are live parts normally exposed on the front of switchboards or motor control centers, the working space in front of such equipment must be at least 3 feet.

(5) All working spaces around service equipment, switchboards, panelboards, and motor control centers installed indoors must be adequately lit.

(6) The minimum headroom of working spaces about service equipment, switchboards, panelboards, or motor control centers must be 6 feet 3 inches.

Motor control center” means an assembly of one or more enclosed sections having a common power bus and principally containing motor control units.

[Recodified as 296-307-36227. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36227, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-36230 What access and working space must be provided for electrical equipment over 600 volts, nominal?

(1) Conductors and equipment used on circuits exceeding 600 volts, nominal, must meet all requirements of WAC 296-307-36221 and the additional requirements of this section. This section does not apply to equipment on the supply side of the service conductors.

(2) Electrical installations in a vault, room, closet or area surrounded by a wall, screen, or fence, with access controlled by lock and key or other approved means, are considered accessible to qualified persons only. A wall, screen, or fence less than 8 feet high is not considered to prevent access unless it has other features that provide a degree of isolation equivalent to an 8 foot fence. The entrances to all buildings, rooms, or enclosures containing exposed live parts or exposed conductors operating at over 600 volts, nominal, must be kept locked or under the observation of a qualified person at all times.

(a) Electrical installations with exposed live parts must be accessible to qualified persons only.

(b) Electrical installations that are open to unqualified persons must be made with metal-enclosed equipment or enclosed in a vault or in an area, with access controlled by a lock. If metal-enclosed equipment is installed so that the bottom of the enclosure is less than 8 feet above the floor, the door or cover must be kept locked. Metal-enclosed switchgear, unit substations, transformers, pull boxes, connection boxes, and other similar associated equipment must be marked with appropriate caution signs. If equipment is exposed to physical damage from vehicular traffic, guards must be provided to prevent damage. Ventilating or similar openings in metal-enclosed equipment must be designed so that foreign objects inserted through these openings will be deflected from energized parts.

(3) You must provide and maintain enough space around electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of equipment. Where energized parts are exposed, the minimum clear workspace must be at least 6 feet 6 inches high (measured vertically from the floor or platform), or less than 3 feet wide (measured parallel to the equipment). The depth must meet the requirements of Table T. The workspace must be adequate to permit at least a 90-degree opening of doors or hinged panels.

(a) The minimum clear working space in front of electric equipment such as switchboards, control panels, switches, circuit breakers, motor controllers, relays, and similar equipment must be at least that specified in Table T unless otherwise indicated. Distances must be measured from the live parts if they are exposed, or from the enclosure front or opening if the live parts are enclosed. However, working space is not required in back of equipment such as deadfront switchboards or control assemblies where there are no renewable or adjustable parts (such as fuses or switches) on the back and where all connections are accessible from another direction. Where rear access is required to work on deenergized parts on the back of enclosed equipment, a minimum working space of 30 inches horizontally shall be provided.

Table T Minimum Depth of Clear Working Space in Front of Electric Equipment

 

Conditions (ft.)

Nominal voltage to ground

(a)

(b)

(c)

601 to 2,500

3

4

5

2,501 to 9,000

4

5

6

9,001 to 25,000

5

6

9

25,001 to 75kV1

6

8

10

Above 75kV1

8

10

12

Note: Minimum depth of clear working space in front of electric equipment with a nominal voltage to ground above 25,000 volts may be the same as for 25,000 volts under conditions (a), (b) and (c) for installations built prior to April 16, 1981.

Conditions:

(a) Exposed live parts on one side and no live or grounded parts on the other side of the working space, or exposed live parts on both sides guarded by suitable wood or other insulating materials. Insulated wire or insulated busbars operating at 300 volts or less are not considered live parts.

(b) Exposed live parts on one side and grounded parts on the other side. Concrete, brick, or tile walls will be considered grounded surfaces.

(c) Exposed live parts on both sides of the workspace (not guarded as in (a)) with the operator between.

(b) All working spaces around electric equipment must be adequately lit. The lighting outlets shall be arranged so that anyone changing lamps or making repairs on the lighting system will not be endangered by live parts or other equipment. The points of control must be located so that no one is likely to come in contact with any live part or moving part of the equipment while turning on the lights.

(c) Unguarded live parts above working space must be elevated to at least the height specified below:

Elevation of Unguarded Energized Parts Above Working Space

Nominal voltage between phases

Minimum elevation

601 to 7,500

8 feet 6 inches

7,501 to 35,000

9 feet

Over 35kV

9 feet + 0.37 inches per kV above 35kV

Note: Minimum elevation may be 8 feet for installations built prior to April 16, 1981, if the nominal voltage between phases is in the range of 601-6600 volts.

(4) Entrance and access to workspace must meet the following requirements:

(a) At least one entrance that is at least 24 inches wide and 6 feet 6 inches high must be provided to give access to the working space around electric equipment. On switchboard and control panels over 48 inches wide, there must be one entrance at each end of the board where practical. Where bare energized parts at any voltage or insulated energized parts above 600 volts are located adjacent to the entrance, they must be suitably guarded.

(b) Permanent ladders or stairways must be provided to give safe access to the working space around electric equipment installed on platforms, balconies, mezzanine floors, or in attic or roof rooms or spaces.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-36230, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-36230. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36230, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-364 Electrical installation and maintenance.

[Recodified as 296-307-364. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-364, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36403 How must flexible cords and cables be installed and maintained?

(1) Extension cords used with portable electric tools and appliances must be three wire and must be fitted with an approved grounding attachment plug and receptacle providing ground continuity.

Exception: This does not apply to cords used with portable tools and equipment provided by an approved system of double insulation or its equivalent.

(2) Worn or frayed electric cables are prohibited.

[Recodified as 296-307-36403. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36403, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36406 How must attachment plugs and receptacles be installed and maintained?

(1) Attachment plugs used in work areas must be constructed so that they will endure rough use and have a suitable cord grip to prevent strain on the terminal screws.

(2) Attachment plugs must be approved grounding plugs.

(3) Receptacles for attachment plugs must have approved concealed contacts with a contact for extending ground continuity. Receptacles must be designed and constructed to ensure that the plug can be pulled out without leaving any live parts exposed to accidental contact.

(4) Polarized attachment plugs, receptacles, and cord connectors must be wired to maintain continuity.

(5) Polarized attachment plugs, receptacles, and cord connectors for plugs and polarized plugs must have the terminal intended for connection to the grounded (white) conductor identified by a metal coating that is mostly white. If the terminal is not visible, its entrance hole must be marked with the word “white,” or the color white.

(6) The terminal for the connection of the equipment grounding conductor must be:

(a) A green colored, not easily removed terminal screw with hexagonal head; or

(b) A green colored, hexagonal, not easily removed terminal nut; or

(c) A green colored pressure wire connector.

If the terminal for the grounding conductor is not visible, the conductor entrance hole must be marked with the word “green” or the color green.

Note: Two-wire attachment plugs, unless of the polarity type, need not have their terminals marked for identification.

(7) Where different voltages, or types of current (A.C. or D.C.) are to be supplied by portable cords, receptacles must be designed so that attachment plugs used on the circuits are not interchangeable.

(8) Attachment plugs or other connectors supplying equipment at more than 300 volts must be skirted or otherwise designed so that arcs are confined.

[Recodified as 296-307-36406. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36406, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-36409 What must employees do when equipment causes electrical shock?

Employees must report all shocks received from electrical equipment, no matter how slight, immediately to you. The equipment causing the shock must be checked and any necessary corrective action taken immediately.

[Recodified as 296-307-36409. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36409, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36412 What grounding and bonding requirements apply to equipment installation and maintenance?

(1) The path to ground must have enough carrying capacity to conduct safely the currents likely to be imposed on it; and have low enough impedance to limit the potential above ground and to result in the operation of the overcurrent devices in the circuit.

(2) Driven rod electrodes must, where practical, have a resistance to ground of a maximum of 25 ohms. Where the resistance is over 25 ohms, two electrodes connected in parallel shall be used.

(3) Grounding circuits must be checked to ensure that the circuit between the ground and the grounded power conductor has a resistance that is low enough to permit sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current.

(4) Conductors used for bonding and grounding equipment must be large enough to carry the anticipated current.

[Recodified as 296-307-36412. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36412, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36415 What requirements apply to disconnecting means?

(1) Disconnecting means must be located or shielded so that employees will not be injured. Using open knife switches is prohibited.

(2) Boxes for disconnecting means must be securely and rigidly fastened to the surface upon which they are mounted, and fitted with covers.

[Recodified as 296-307-36415. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36415, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36418 What requirements apply to identification and load rating of electrical equipment?

(1) Name plates, rating data, and marks of identification on electrical equipment and electrically operated machines must not be removed, defaced or obliterated.

(2) In existing installations, no changes in circuit protection must be made to increase the load beyond the load rating of the circuit wiring, as specified in the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-1973; ANSI C1-1972, Article 310.

(3) Tampering with, bridging, or using oversize fuses is prohibited. If fuses blow repeatedly, employees must immediately report the trouble to you or to an authorized electrician.

(4) Attempting to start electric motors that kick out repeatedly is prohibited.

[Recodified as 296-307-36418. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36418, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36421 How must equipment be installed in wet locations?

(1) Cabinets, cutout boxes, fittings, boxes, and panelboard enclosures in damp or wet locations must be installed to prevent moisture or water from entering and accumulating within the enclosures. In wet locations the enclosures must be weatherproof.

(2) Switches, circuit breakers, and switchboards installed in wet locations must be enclosed in weatherproof enclosures.

[Recodified as 296-307-36421. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36421, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-366 Wiring design and protection.

[Recodified as 296-307-366. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-366, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36603 How must grounded and grounding conductors be used and identified?

(1) A conductor used as a grounded conductor must be identified separately from all other conductors. A conductor used as an equipment grounding conductor must be identified separately from all other conductors.

(2) A grounded conductor must not be attached to any terminal or lead to reverse the designated polarity.

(3) Using a grounding terminal or grounding-type device on a receptacle, cord connector, or attachment plug for anything other than grounding is prohibited.

[Recodified as 296-307-36603. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36603, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-36606 What ampere rating must outlet devices have? 

Outlet devices must have an ampere rating at least equal to the load served.

[Recodified as 296-307-36606. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36606, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36609 What requirements apply to conductors? 

This section applies to branch circuit, feeder, and service conductors rated 600 volts, nominal, or less and run outdoors as open conductors.

(1) Conductors supported on poles must provide a horizontal climbing space of at least the following:

(a) For power conductors below communication conductors, 30 inches.

(b) For power conductors alone or above communication conductors:

  • 300 volts or less, 24 inches;
  • More than 300 volts, 30 inches.

(c) For communication conductors below power conductors with power conductors of:

  • 300 volts or less, 24 inches;
  • More than 300 volts, 30 inches.

(2) Open conductors must provide at least the following minimum clearances:

(a) 10 feet, above finished grade, sidewalks, or from any platform or projection from which they might be reached;

(b) 12 feet, over areas subject to vehicular traffic other than truck traffic;

(c) 15 feet, over areas that are subject to truck traffic; except

(d) 18 feet, over public streets, alleys, roads, and driveways.

(3) Conductors must have a clearance of at least 3 feet from windows, doors, porches, fire escapes, or similar locations. Conductors run above the top level of a window are considered to be out of reach from that window and, therefore, do not have to be 3 feet away.

(4) Conductors must have a clearance of at least 8 feet from the highest point of roofs they pass over.

Exceptions:

(a) Where the voltage between conductors is 300 volts or less and the roof has a slope of at least 4 inches in 12, the clearance from the roofs must be at least 3 feet; or

(b) Where the voltage between conductors is 300 volts or less, the conductors do not pass over more than 4 feet of the overhang portion of the roof, and they are terminated at a through-the-roof raceway or approved support, the clearance from the roofs must be at least 18 inches.

(5) Lamps for outdoor lighting must be located below all live conductors, transformers, or other electric equipment, unless such equipment is controlled by a disconnecting means that can be locked in the open position or unless adequate clearances or other safeguards are provided for relamping operations.

[Recodified as 296-307-36609. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36609, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36612 What design and protection requirements apply to service-entrances?

(1) Disconnecting means for service-entrances must meet the following requirements:

(a) Means must be provided to disconnect all conductors in a building or other structure from the service-entrance conductors. The disconnecting means must plainly indicate whether it is in the open or closed position and must be installed at a readily accessible location nearest the point of entrance of the service-entrance conductors.

(b) Each service disconnecting means must disconnect all ungrounded conductors at the same time.

(2) The following additional requirements apply to services over 600 volts, nominal.

(a) Service-entrance conductors installed as open wires must be guarded to make them accessible only to qualified persons.

(b) Signs warning of high voltage must be posted where other than qualified employees might come in contact with live parts.

[Recodified as 296-307-36612. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36612, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36615 What overcurrent protection must be provided?

(1) The following requirements apply to overcurrent protection of circuits rated 600 volts, nominal, or less.

(a) Conductors and equipment must be protected from overcurrent according to their ability to safely conduct current.

(b) Except for motor running overload protection, overcurrent devices must not interrupt the continuity of the grounded conductor unless all conductors of the circuit are opened at the same time.

(c) Except for service fuses, all cartridge fuses that are accessible to other than qualified persons and all fuses and thermal cutouts on circuits over 150 volts to ground must have disconnecting means. This disconnecting means must be installed so that the fuse or thermal cutout can be disconnected from its supply without disrupting service to equipment and circuits unrelated to those protected by the overcurrent device.

(d) Overcurrent devices must be readily accessible to each employee or authorized building management personnel. These overcurrent devices must be located where they will be protected against physical damage and away from easily ignitable material.

(e) Fuses and circuit breakers must be located or shielded so that employees will not be burned or otherwise injured by their operation.

(f) Circuit breakers must meet the following requirements:

(i) Circuit breakers must clearly indicate whether they are in the open (off) or closed (on) position.

(ii) Where circuit breaker handles on switchboards are operated vertically rather than horizontally or rotationally, the up position of the handle must be the closed (on) position.

(iii) If used as switches in 120-volt, fluorescent lighting circuits, circuit breakers must be approved for the purpose and marked “SWD.”

(2) Feeders and branch circuits over 600 volts, nominal, must have short-circuit protection.

[Recodified as 296-307-36615. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36615, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36618 What premises wiring systems must be grounded? 

The following systems that supply premises wiring must be grounded:

(1) All 3-wire DC systems must have their neutral conductor grounded.

(2) Two-wire DC systems operating at 50-300 volts between conductors must be grounded.

Exceptions: This requirement does not apply if:

(a) They supply only industrial equipment in limited areas and are equipped with a ground detector; or

(b) They are rectifier-derived from an AC system that meets the requirements of subsections (3), (4), and (5) of this section; or

(c) They are fire-protective signaling circuits with a maximum current of 0.030 amperes.

(3) AC circuits of less than 50 volts must be grounded if they are installed as overhead conductors outside of buildings or if they are supplied by transformers and the transformer primary supply system is ungrounded or exceeds 150 volts to ground.

(4) AC systems of 50-1000 volts must be grounded under any of the following conditions:

(a) If the system can be grounded so that the maximum voltage to ground on the ungrounded conductors is a maximum of 150 volts;

(b) If the system is nominally rated 480Y/277 volt, 3-phase, 4-wire in which the neutral is used as a circuit conductor;

(c) If the system is nominally rated 240/120 volt, 3-phase, 4-wire in which the midpoint of one phase is used as a circuit conductor; or

(d) If a service conductor is uninsulated.

(5) Exceptions: AC systems of 50-1000 volts are not required to be grounded under any of the following conditions:

(a) If the system is used exclusively to supply industrial electric furnaces for melting, refining, tempering, and the like.

(b) If the system is separately derived and is used exclusively for rectifiers supplying only adjustable speed industrial drives.

(c) If the system is separately derived and is supplied by a transformer that has a primary voltage rating less than 1000 volts, if all of the following conditions are met:

(i) The system is used exclusively for control circuits;

(ii) The conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons will service the installation;

(iii) Continuity of control power is required; and

(iv) Ground detectors are installed on the control system.

[Recodified as 296-307-36618. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36618, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-36621 Must the conductor be grounded for AC premises wiring? 

For AC premises wiring systems the identified conductor must be grounded.

[Recodified as 296-307-36621. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36621, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36624 What general requirements apply to grounding conductors?

(1) For a grounded system, a grounding electrode conductor must be used to connect both the equipment grounding conductor and the grounded circuit conductor to the grounding electrode. Both the equipment grounding conductor and the grounding electrode conductor must be connected to the grounded circuit conductor on the supply side of the service disconnecting means, or on the supply side of the system disconnecting means or overcurrent devices if the system is separately derived.

(2) For an ungrounded service-supplied system, the equipment grounding conductor must be connected to the grounding electrode conductor at the service equipment. For an ungrounded separately derived system, the equipment grounding conductor must be connected to the grounding electrode conductor at, or ahead of, the system disconnecting means or overcurrent devices.

(3) On extensions of existing branch circuits that do not have an equipment grounding conductor, grounding-type receptacles may be grounded to a grounded cold water pipe near the equipment.

[Recodified as 296-307-36624. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36624, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36627 Must the path to ground be continuous? The path to ground from circuits, equipment, and enclosures must be permanent and continuous.

[Recodified as 296-307-36627. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36627, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36630 What supports, enclosures, and equipment must be grounded?

(1) Metal cable trays, metal raceways, and metal enclosures for conductors must be grounded.

Exceptions:

(a) Metal enclosures such as sleeves that are used to protect cable assemblies from physical damage need not be grounded; or

(b) Metal enclosures for conductors added to existing installations of open wire, knob-and-tube wiring, and nonmetallic-sheathed cable need not be grounded if all of the following conditions are met:

(i) Runs are less than 25 feet;

(ii) Enclosures are free from probable contact with ground, grounded metal, metal laths, or other conductive materials; and

(iii) Enclosures are guarded against employee contact.

(2) Metal enclosures for service equipment must be grounded.

(3) Frames of electric ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units, clothes dryers, and metal outlet or junction boxes that are part of the circuit for these appliances must be grounded.

(4) Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment that may become energized must be grounded under any of the following conditions:

(a) If within 8 feet vertically or 5 feet horizontally of ground or grounded metal objects and subject to employee contact;

(b) If located in a wet or damp location and not isolated;

(c) If in electrical contact with metal;

(d) If in a hazardous (classified) location;

(e) If supplied by a metal-clad, metal-sheathed, or grounded metal raceway wiring method;

(f) If equipment operates with any terminal at over 150 volts to the ground; however, the following need not be grounded:

(i) Enclosures for switches or circuit breakers used for other than service equipment and accessible to qualified persons only;

(ii) Metal frames of electrically heated appliances that are permanently and effectively insulated from ground; and

(iii) The cases of distribution apparatus such as transformers and capacitors mounted on wooden poles that are over 8 feet above ground or grade level.

(5) Under any of the conditions below, exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of cord-connected and plug-connected equipment that may become energized must be grounded.

(a) When equipment is in hazardous (classified) locations.

(b) When equipment is operated at over 150 volts to ground.

Exception: Guarded motors and metal frames of electrically heated appliances need not be grounded if the appliance frames are permanently and effectively insulated from ground.

(c) When equipment is one of the following:

  • Refrigerators, freezers, and air conditioners;

  • Clothes-washing, clothes-drying and dishwashing machines, sump pumps, and electrical aquarium equipment;

  • Hand-held motor-operated tools;

  • The following motor-operated appliances: Hedge clippers, lawn mowers, snow blowers, and wet scrubbers;

  • Cord-connected and plug-connected appliances used in damp or wet locations or by employees standing on the ground or on metal floors or working inside of metal tanks or boilers;

  • Tools likely to be used in wet and conductive locations; and

  • Portable hand lamps.

Tools likely to be used in wet and conductive locations need not be grounded if supplied through an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary of a maximum of 50 volts. Listed or labeled portable tools and appliances protected by an approved system of double insulation, or its equivalent, need not be grounded. The equipment must be distinctively marked to indicate that the tool or appliance uses an approved system of double insulation.

(6) The metal parts of the following nonelectrical equipment must be grounded: Frames and tracks of electrically operated cranes; frames of nonelectrically driven elevator cars to which electric conductors are attached; hand operated metal shifting ropes or cables of electric elevators, and metal partitions, grill work, and other metal enclosures around equipment of over 750 volts between conductors.

[Recodified as 296-307-36630. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36630, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36633 How must fixed equipment be grounded?

(1) Noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment, if required to be grounded by this section, must be grounded by an equipment grounding conductor that is contained within the same raceway, cable, or cord, or runs with or encloses the circuit conductors. For DC circuits only, the equipment grounding conductor may be run separately from the circuit conductors.

(2) Electric equipment is considered grounded if it is secured to, and in electrical contact with, a metal rack or structure that is provided for its support and the metal rack or structure is grounded as described above.

For installations made before May 30, 1982, electric equipment is also considered grounded if it is secured to, and in metallic contact with, the grounded structural metal frame of a building. Metal car frames supported by metal hoisting cables attached to or running over metal sheaves or drums of grounded elevator machines are also considered grounded.

[Recodified as 296-307-36633. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36633, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-36636 How must high voltage systems be grounded? 

Grounded high voltage (1000 volts or more) systems and circuits must meet all requirements of WAC 296-307-366 and the additional requirements of this section.

(1) Systems supplying portable or mobile high voltage equipment, other than substations installed on a temporary basis, must meet the following requirements:

(a) Portable and mobile high voltage equipment must be supplied from a system having its neutral grounded through an impedance. If a delta-connected high voltage system is used to supply the equipment, a system neutral must be derived.

(b) Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of portable and mobile equipment must be connected by an equipment grounding conductor to the point at which the system neutral impedance is grounded.

(c) Ground-fault detection and relaying must be provided to automatically deenergize any high voltage system component that has developed a ground fault. The continuity of the equipment grounding conductor must be continuously monitored to deenergize automatically the high voltage feeder to the portable equipment on loss of continuity of the equipment grounding conductor.

(d) The grounding electrode to which the portable or mobile equipment system neutral impedance is connected must be isolated from and separated in the ground by at least 20 feet from any other system or equipment grounding electrode. There must be no direct connection between the grounding electrodes, such as buried pipe, fence, etc.

(2) All noncurrent-carrying metal parts of portable equipment and fixed equipment including their associated fences, housings, enclosures, and supporting structures shall be grounded. However, equipment that is guarded by location and isolated from ground need not be grounded. Additionally, pole-mounted distribution apparatus over 8 feet above ground or grade level need not be grounded.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-36636, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-36636. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36636, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-368 Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.

[Recodified as 296-307-368. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-368, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36803 Does this section apply to factory-assembled equipment? 

WAC 296-307-368 does not apply to conductors that are an integral part of factory-assembled equipment.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-36803, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-36803. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-307-36803, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36806 What wiring methods must be used for temporary wiring? 

Temporary electrical power and lighting wiring methods may be of a class less than would be required for a permanent installation. All requirements for permanent wiring apply to temporary wiring installations, except as indicated in this section.

(1) Temporary electrical power and lighting installations 600 volts, nominal, or less must only be used:

(a) During and for remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition of buildings, structures, or equipment, and similar activities;

(b) For experimental or development work; and

(c) For a maximum of 90 days for Christmas lighting and similar purposes.

(2) Temporary wiring over 600 volts, nominal, must only be used during periods of tests, experiments, or emergencies.

(3) General requirements for temporary wiring.

(a) Working spaces, walkways, and similar locations must be kept clear of power cords.

(b) All temporary wiring must be grounded. (See NFPA 70 Art. 250.)

(c) All wiring equipment must be maintained as vapor-tight, dust-tight, or fiber-tight as their approval requires. There must be no loose or missing screws, gaskets, threaded connections, or other conditions that impair the required tightness.

(d) Take precautions to make necessary open wiring accessible only to authorized personnel.

(e) Feeders must originate in an approved distribution center. The conductors must be run as multiconductor cord or cable assemblies, or, where not subject to physical damage, they may be run as open conductors on insulators not more than 10 feet apart.

(f) Branch circuits must originate in an approved power outlet or panelboard. Conductors must be multiconductor cord or cable assemblies or open conductors. If run as open conductors they must be fastened at ceiling height every 10 feet. A branch-circuit conductor must not be laid on the floor. Each branch circuit that supplies receptacles or fixed equipment must have a separate equipment grounding conductor if run as open conductors.

(g) Receptacles must be of the grounding type. Unless installed in a complete metallic raceway, each branch circuit must have a separate equipment grounding conductor and all receptacles must be electrically connected to the grounding conductor.

(h) A bare conductor or an earth return must not be used to wire any temporary circuit.

(i) Suitable disconnecting switches or plug connectors must be installed to permit the disconnection of all ungrounded conductors of each temporary circuit.

(j) Lamps for general illumination must be protected from accidental contact or breakage. Lamps must be elevated at least 7 feet from normal working surface or by a suitable fixture or lampholder with a guard.

(k) Flexible cords and cables must be protected from accidental damage. Sharp corners and projections must be avoided. Where passing through doorways or other pinch points, flexible cords and cables must be protected to avoid damage.

(4) General requirements for temporary lighting.

(a) Temporary lights must have guards to prevent accidental contact with the bulb.

Note: Guards are not required when the entire bulb is below the rim and completely surrounded and protected by the reflector.

(b) Temporary lights must have heavy duty electric cords with connections and insulation maintained in safe condition.

(c) Temporary lights must not be suspended by their electric cords unless cords and lights are designed for suspension.

(d) Brass shell, paper-lined lamp holders are prohibited.

(e) Portable extension lamps used where flammable vapors or gases, combustible dusts, or easily ignitable fibers or flyings are present, must be specifically approved as complete assemblies for the type of hazard.

[Recodified as 296-307-36086. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-307-36806, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-36809 When may cable trays be used?

(1) Only the following may be installed in cable tray systems.

(a) Mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable (Type MI);

(b) Armored cable (Type AC);

(c) Metal-clad cable (Type MC);

(d) Power-limited tray cable (Type PLTC);

(e) Nonmetallic-sheathed cable (Type NM or NMC);

(f) Shielded nonmetallic-sheathed cable (Type SNM);

(g) Multiconductor service-entrance cable (Type SE or USE);

(h) Multiconductor underground feeder and branch-circuit cable (Type UF);

(i) Power and control tray cable (Type TC);

(j) Other factory-assembled, multiconductor control, signal, or power cables that are specifically approved for installation in cable trays; or

(k) Any approved conduit or raceway with its contained conductors.

(2) In industrial establishments only, where conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons will service the installed cable tray system, the following cables may also be installed in ladder, ventilated trough, or 4 inch ventilated channel-type cable trays:

Single conductor cables that are 250 MCM or larger and are Types RHH, RHW, MV, USE, or THW, and other 250 MCM or larger single conductor cables if specifically approved for installation in cable trays. Where exposed to direct rays of the sun, cables must be sunlight-resistant.

(3) Cable trays in hazardous (classified) locations must contain only the cable types permitted in such locations.

Exception: Cable tray systems must not be used in hoistways or where subjected to severe physical damage.

[Recodified as 296-307-36809. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36809, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36812 What requirements apply to open wiring on insulators?

(1) Open wiring on insulators is only permitted on systems of 600 volts, nominal, or less for industrial or agricultural establishments and for services.

(2) Conductors must be rigidly supported on noncombustible, nonabsorbent insulating materials and must not contact any other objects.

(3) In dry locations with no exposure to severe physical damage, conductors may be separately enclosed in flexible nonmetallic tubing. The tubing must be in continuous lengths a maximum of 15 feet and secured to the surface by straps at maximum intervals of 4 feet 6 inches.

(4) Open conductors must be separated from contact with walls, floors, and wood cross members, or partitions through which they pass by tubes or bushings of noncombustible, nonabsorbent insulating material. If the bushing is shorter than the hole, a waterproof sleeve of nonconductive material must be inserted in the hole and an insulating bushing slipped into the sleeve at each end to keep the conductors completely out of contact with the sleeve. Each conductor must be carried through a separate tube or sleeve.

(5) Conductors within 7 feet of the floor are considered exposed to physical damage. Where open conductors cross ceiling joints and wall studs and are exposed to physical damage, they must be protected.

[Recodified as 296-307-36812. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36812, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36815 What wiring requirements apply to cabinets, boxes, and fittings?

(1) Conductors entering boxes, cabinets, or fittings must be protected from abrasion, and openings through which conductors enter must be closed. Unused openings in cabinets, boxes, and fittings must also be closed.

(2) All pull boxes, junction boxes, and fittings must have covers approved for the purpose. All metal covers must be grounded. In completed installations each outlet box must have a cover, faceplate, or fixture canopy. A cover of an outlet box with holes through which a flexible cord pendant passes must have bushings designed for the purpose or have a smooth, well-rounded surface for the cord to run on.

(3) All pull and junction boxes for systems over 600 volts, nominal, must meet the following requirements:

(a) Boxes must provide a complete enclosure for the contained conductors or cables.

(b) Boxes must be closed by suitable covers securely fastened in place. Underground box covers that weigh over 100 pounds meet this requirement. Covers for boxes must be permanently marked “HIGH VOLTAGE.” The marking must be on the outside of the box cover and must be readily visible and legible.

[Recodified as 296-307-36815. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36815, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36818 What requirements apply to switches?

(1) Single-throw knife switches must be connected so that the blades are dead when the switch is in the open position. Single-throw knife switches must be placed so that gravity will not tend to close them. Single-throw knife switches approved for use in the inverted position must have a locking device that keeps the blades open when set. Double-throw knife switches may be mounted so that the throw will be either vertical or horizontal. However, if the throw is vertical a locking device must be provided to ensure that the blades remain open when so set.

(2) Flush snap switches that are mounted in ungrounded metal boxes and located within reach of conducting floors or other conducting surfaces must have faceplates of nonconducting, noncombustible material.

[Recodified as 296-307-36818. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36818, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36821 Where must switchboards and panelboards be located? 

Switchboards that have any exposed live parts must be located in permanently dry locations and accessible only to qualified persons. Panelboards must be mounted in cabinets, cutout boxes, or enclosures approved for the purpose and must be dead front. However, panelboards other than the dead front externally operable type are permitted where accessible only to qualified persons. Exposed blades of knife switches must be dead when open.

[Recodified as 296-307-36821. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36821, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36824 When must conductors be insulated? 

All conductors used for general wiring must be insulated unless otherwise permitted in this section. The conductor insulation must be approved for the voltage, operating temperature, and location of use. Insulated conductors must be distinguishable by appropriate color or other means as grounded conductors, ungrounded conductors, or equipment grounding conductors.

[Recodified as 296-307-36824. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36824, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-36827 When may flexible cords and cables be used?

(1) Flexible cords and cables must be approved and suitable for conditions of use and location. Flexible cords and cables must be used only for:

(a) Pendants;

(b) Wiring of fixtures;

(c) Connection of portable lamps or appliances;

(d) Elevator cables;

(e) Wiring of cranes and hoists;

(f) Connection of stationary equipment to facilitate frequent interchange;

(g) Prevention of the transmission of noise or vibration;

(h) Appliances where the fastening means and mechanical connections are designed to permit removal for maintenance and repair; or

(i) Data processing cables approved as a part of the data processing system.

(2) If used as permitted above, the flexible cord must have an attachment plug and shall be energized from an approved receptacle outlet.

(3) Unless permitted in subsection (1) of this section, flexible cords and cables must not be used:

(a) As a substitute for the fixed wiring of a structure;

(b) Where run through holes in walls, ceilings, or floors;

(c) Where run through doorways, windows, or similar openings;

(d) Where attached to building surfaces; or

(e) Where concealed behind building walls, ceilings, or floors.

(4) Flexible cords used in show windows and showcases must be Type S, SO, SJ, SJO, ST, STO, SJT, SJTO, or AFS except for the wiring of chain-supported lighting fixtures and supply cords for portable lamps and other merchandise being displayed or exhibited.

[Recodified as 296-307-36827. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36827, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36830 How must flexible cords and cables be identified, spliced, and terminated?

(1) A conductor of a flexible cord or cable that is used as a grounded conductor or an equipment grounding conductor must be distinguishable from other conductors. Types SJ, SJO, SJT, SJTO, S, SO, ST, and STO must be durably marked on the surface with the type designation, size, and number of conductors.

(2) Flexible cords must be used only in continuous lengths without splice or tap. Vulcanized splices or equivalent means such as systems using shrinkable materials may be used to repair flexible cords. Hard service flexible cords No. 12 or larger may be repaired by splice if the splice retains the insulation, outer sheath properties, and usage characteristics of the cord being spliced.

(3) Flexible cords must be connected to devices and fittings so that strain relief is provided to prevent pull from being directly transmitted to joints or terminal screws.

[Recodified as 296-307-36830. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36830, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36833 What requirements apply to multiconductor portable cable?

 Multiconductor portable cable for use in supplying power to portable or mobile equipment at over 600 volts, nominal, must consist of No. 8 or larger conductors employing flexible stranding. Cables operated at over 2,000 volts must be shielded to confine the voltage stresses to the insulation. Grounding conductors must be provided. Connectors for these cables must be locking with provisions to prevent their opening or closing while energized. Strain relief must be provided at connections and terminations. Portable cables must not be operated with splices unless the splices are permanent molded, vulcanized, or other approved type. Termination enclosures must be suitably marked with a high voltage hazard warning, and terminations must be accessible only to authorized and qualified personnel.

[Recodified as 296-307-36833. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36833, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36836 When may fixture wires be used?

(1) A fixture wire must be approved for the voltage, temperature, and location of use. A fixture wire used as a grounded conductor must be identified.

(2) Fixture wires may be used:

(a) For installation in lighting fixtures and in similar equipment where enclosed or protected and not subject to bending or twisting in use; or

(b) For connecting lighting fixtures to the branch-circuit conductors supplying the fixtures.

(3) Fixture wires must not be used as branch-circuit conductors except as permitted for Class 1 power limited circuits.

[Recodified as 296-307-36836. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36836, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36839 What requirements apply to wiring for lighting fixtures, lampholders, lamps, and receptacles?

(1) Fixtures, lampholders, lamps, rosettes, and receptacles must have no live parts normally exposed to employee contact. However, rosettes and cleat-type lampholders and receptacles located at least 8 feet above the floor may have exposed parts.

(2) Handlamps of the portable type supplied through flexible cords must have a handle of molded composition or other material approved for the purpose, and a substantial guard must be attached to the lampholder or the handle.

(3) Lampholders of the screw-shell type must be installed for use as lampholders only. Lampholders installed in wet or damp locations must be weatherproof.

(4) Fixtures installed in wet or damp locations must be approved for the purpose and must be constructed or installed so that water cannot enter or accumulate in wireways, lampholders, or other electrical parts.

[Recodified as 296-307-36839. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36839, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36842 What requirements apply to wiring for receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs (caps)?

(1) Receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs must be constructed so that no receptacle or cord connector will accept an attachment plug with a different voltage or current rating than that for which the device is intended. However, a 20-ampere T-slot receptacle or cord connector may accept a 15-ampere attachment plug of the same voltage rating.

(2) A receptacle installed in a wet or damp location must be suitable for the location.

[Recodified as 296-307-36842. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36842, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-36845 What requirements apply to wiring for appliances?

(1) Appliances, other than those in which the current-carrying parts at high temperatures are necessarily exposed, must have no live parts normally exposed to employee contact.

(2) Each appliance must have a disconnecting means.

(3) Each appliance must be marked with its rating in volts and amperes or volts and watts.

[Recodified as 296-307-36845. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36845, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36848 What requirements apply to wiring for motors, motor circuits, and controllers?

(1) If specified that one piece of equipment must be “in sight from” another piece of equipment, one shall be visible and not more than 50 feet from the other.

(2) Disconnecting means must meet the following requirements:

(a) A disconnecting means must be located in sight from the controller location. However, a single disconnecting means may be located adjacent to a group of coordinated controllers mounted adjacent to each other or a multimotor continuous process machine. The controller disconnecting means for motor branch circuits over 600 volts, nominal, may be out of sight of the controller, if the controller is marked with a warning label giving the location and identification of the disconnecting means which is to be locked in the open position.

(b) The disconnecting means must disconnect the motor and the controller from all ungrounded supply conductors and must be designed so that no pole can be operated independently.

(c) If a motor and the driven machinery are not in sight from the controller location, the installation must meet one of the following conditions:

(i) The controller disconnecting means must be able to be locked in the open position.

(ii) A manually operable switch that will disconnect the motor from its source of supply must be placed in sight from the motor location.

(d) The disconnecting means must plainly indicate whether it is in the open (off) or closed (on) position.

(e) The disconnecting means must be readily accessible. If more than one disconnect is provided for the same equipment, only one need be readily accessible.

(f) An individual disconnecting means must be provided for each motor, but a single disconnecting means may be used for a group of motors under any of the following conditions:

(i) If a number of motors drive special parts of a single machine or piece of apparatus, such as a metal or woodworking machine, crane, or hoist; or

(ii) If a group of motors is under the protection of one set of branch-circuit protective devices; or

(iii) If a group of motors is in a single room in sight from the location of the disconnecting means.

(3) Motors, motor-control apparatus, and motor branch-circuit conductors must be protected against overheating from motor overloads or failure to start, and against short-circuits or ground faults. Overload protection is not required if it will stop a motor where a shutdown is likely to introduce additional or increased hazards, as in the case of fire pumps, or where continued operation of a motor is necessary for a safe shutdown of equipment or process and motor overload sensing devices are connected to a supervised alarm.

(4) Live parts of all voltages must be protected according to the following:

(a) Stationary motors with commutators, collectors, and brush rigging located inside of motor end brackets and not conductively connected to supply circuits operating at more than 150 volts to ground may have those parts unguarded. Exposed live parts of motors and controllers operating at 50 volts or more between terminals must be guarded against accidental contact by any of the following:

(i) By installation in a room or enclosure that is accessible only to qualified persons;

(ii) By installation on a suitable balcony, gallery, or platform, elevated and arranged to exclude unqualified persons; or

(iii) By elevation 8 feet or more above the floor.

(b) Where live parts of motors or controllers operating at over 150 volts to ground are guarded against accidental contact only by location, and where adjustment or other attendance may be necessary during the operation of the apparatus, suitable insulating mats or platforms must be provided so that the attendant cannot readily touch live parts unless standing on the mats or platforms.

[Recodified as 296-307-36848. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36848, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36851 What requirements apply to wiring for transformers?

(1) This section applies to the installation of all transformers.

Exceptions:

(a) Current transformers;

(b) Dry-type transformers installed as a component part of other apparatus;

(c) Transformers that are an integral part of a high frequency or electrostatic-coating apparatus;

(d) Transformers used with Class 2 and Class 3 circuits, sign and outline lighting, electric discharge lighting, and power-limited fire-protective signaling circuits; and

(e) Liquid-filled or dry-type transformers used for research, development, or testing, where effective safeguard arrangements are provided.

(2) The operating voltage of exposed live parts of transformer installations must be indicated by warning signs or visible markings on the equipment or structure.

(3) Dry-type, high fire point liquid-insulated, and askarel-insulated transformers installed indoors and rated over 35kV must be in a vault.

(4) If they present a fire hazard to employees, oil-insulated transformers installed indoors must be in a vault.

(5) Combustible material, combustible buildings and parts of buildings, fire escapes, and door and window openings must be safeguarded from fires that may originate in oil-insulated transformers attached or adjacent to a building or combustible material.

(6) Transformer vaults must be constructed to contain fire and combustible liquids within the vault and to prevent unauthorized access. Locks and latches must be arranged so that a vault door can be readily opened from the inside.

(7) Any pipe or duct system foreign to the vault installation must not enter or pass through a transformer vault.

(8) Materials must not be stored in transformer vaults.

[Recodified as 296-307-36851. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36851, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36854 What requirements apply to wiring for capacitors?

(1) All capacitors, except surge capacitors or capacitors included as a component part of other apparatus, must have an automatic means of draining the stored charge after the capacitor is disconnected from its source of supply.

(2) Capacitors rated over 600 volts, nominal, must meet the following additional requirements:

(a) Isolating or disconnecting switches (with no interrupting rating) must be interlocked with the load interrupting device or must have prominently displayed caution signs to prevent switching load current.

(b) For series capacitors, the proper switching must be ensured by any of the following:

(i) Mechanically sequenced isolating and bypass switches;

(ii) Interlocks; or

(iii) Switching procedure prominently displayed at the switching location.

[Recodified as 296-307-36854. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36854, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36857 How must storage batteries be ventilated? 

You must ensure that there is sufficient diffusion and ventilation of gases from storage batteries to prevent the accumulation of explosive mixtures.

[Recodified as 296-307-36857. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36857, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-36860 What other miscellaneous requirements apply to wiring methods?

(1) Metal raceways, cable armor, and other metal enclosures for conductors must be metallically joined into a continuous electric conductor and must be connected to all boxes, fittings, and cabinets to provide effective electrical continuity.

(2) All wiring systems are prohibited from being installed in ducts used to transport dust, loose stock or flammable vapors. All wiring system are prohibited from being installed in any duct used for vapor removal or for ventilation of commercial-type cooking equipment, or in any shaft containing only such ducts.

[Recodified as 296-307-36860. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-36860, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-370 Special purpose equipment and installations.

[Recodified as 296-307-370. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-370, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-37003 What requirements apply to cranes, hoists, and runways? 

The installation of electric equipment and wiring used with cranes, monorail hoists, hoists, and all runways must meet the following requirements:

(1) Disconnecting means must meet the following requirements:

(a) A readily accessible disconnecting means is provided between the runway contact conductors and the power supply.

(b) Another disconnecting means, capable of being locked in the open position, is provided in the leads from the runway contact conductors or other power supply on any crane or monorail hoist.

(i) If this additional disconnection means is not readily accessible from the crane or monorail hoist operating station, means is provided at the operating station, to open the power circuit to all motors of the crane or monorail hoist.

(ii) The additional disconnect may be omitted if a monorail hoist or hand-propelled crane bridge installation meets all of the following:

(A) The unit is floor controlled;

(B) The unit is within view of the power supply disconnecting means; and

(C) No fixed work platform has been provided for servicing the unit.

(2) A limit switch or other device shall be provided to prevent the load block from passing the safe upper limit of travel of any hoisting mechanism.

(3) The dimension of the working space in the direction of access to live parts that may require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while alive must be a minimum of 2 feet 6 inches. Where controls are enclosed in cabinets, the door must either open at least 90 degrees or be removable.

[Recodified as 296-307-37003. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-37003, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-37006 What requirements apply to elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, and moving walks?

(1) Elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, and moving walks must have a single means for disconnecting all ungrounded main power supply conductors for each unit.

(2) If interconnections between control panels are necessary for operation of the system on a multicar installation that remains energized from a source other than the disconnecting means, a warning sign must be mounted on or adjacent to the disconnecting means. The sign must be clearly legible and shall read “Warning-Parts of the control panel are not deenergized by this switch.”

(3) If control panels are not located in the same space as the drive machine, they must be located in cabinets with doors or panels capable of being locked closed.

[Recodified as 296-307-37006. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-37006, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

296-307 Part T (Continued)

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