Sawmills and Woodworking Operations
Chapter 296-78 (Continued)

Rule Contents

WAC 296-800-150 in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) formatFor printing

WAC 296-78-670 Glue machines.

(1) Personal protective equipment as required by the safety and health core rules, WAC 296-800-160, and the general occupational health standard, WAC 296-62-11021, and proper washing facilities with noncaustic soap and sterilizers, shall be provided for all employees handling glue. Rubber gloves and other personal equipment must be sterilized when transferred from one person to another.

(2) Glue spreaders shall be enclosed on the in-running side, leaving only sufficient space to insert the stock.

(3) All glue spreaders shall be equipped with a panic bar or equivalent type device that can be reached from either the infeed or outfeed side of the spreader to shut-off the power in an emergency situation. Such device shall be installed on existing glue spreaders no later than April 1, 1982, and be standard equipment on any glue spreader purchased after January 1, 1982.

(4) All glue mixing and handling rooms where located above work areas shall have water tight floors.

(5) All glue rooms shall be provided with ventilation in accordance with WAC 296-62-110 through 296-62-11013, of the general occupational health standard.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-670, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), 296-78-670, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-670, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-675 Lath mills.

(1) Lath mills shall be so arranged that stock pickers shall be protected from slabs and blocks from slasher and trimmers.

(2) Bolters and lath machines shall be provided with a wall or shield of not less than two inch wood material or equivalent, constructed in front of the machines, to protect stock pickers and passing employees from kickbacks.

(3) Lath bolters and lath mills shall have all feed rolls, belts, gears and moving parts provided with approved guards. Feed chains shall be guarded to as low a point as the maximum height of the stock will permit.

(4) (a) Lath bolters and lath mill saws shall be provided with a sheet metal guard not less than one-eighth inch thick, or a cast iron guard not less than three-sixteenths inch thick, or equivalent. These hoods may be hinged so that they can be turned back to permit changing of the saws.

(b) A metal plate baffle, finger device or other device, shall be installed to prevent kickbacks.

(5) (a) The feed rolls on bolters or lath mills shall not be raised while any employee is in line with the saws.

(b) The stock shall be pushed through the saws with another piece of stock or push stick.

(6) (a) The lath trimmer shall be provided with guards on the ends, the top and the rear so designed as to contain debris and prevent employee contact with the saw. The belt drive shall be provided with guards as required by WAC 296-78-710.

(b) The entire top half of all trimmer saws shall be provided with guards. The guards shall be so adjusted as to prevent employees from accidentally contacting saws.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-675, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-680 Veneer and plywood plants--Peeling and barking.

(1) Where peeling or barking pits are located directly under the log cranes, logs shall not be moved over workers.

(2) Single spiked hooks without a bell shall not be used for handling logs. Hooks shall be equipped with hand holds and shall be maintained in condition to safely perform the job application.

(3) Mechanical barking devices shall be so guarded as to protect employees from flying chips, bark or other matter.

(4) Logs shall not be removed from barker until barking head has ceased to revolve, unless barker is so designed and arranged that barking head will not create or constitute a hazard to employees.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-680, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-685 Veneer lathe.

(1) The elevating ramp (gate) shall be provided with a safety chain and hook or other positive means of suspension while employees are working underneath same.

(2) The area under the tipple from lathe to stock trays shall be provided with railings or other suitable means of preventing employees from entering this area, if access is not prevented by the construction of the machine and employees can enter this area.

(3) Catwalks shall be provided along stock trays so that employees will not have to climb on the sides of trays to straighten stock.

(4) Any section of stock trays shall be locked out or shall have an operator stationed at starting controls while stock is being removed or adjusted.

(5) Guards which will cover the cutting edge of veneer lathe and clipper blades shall be provided and used while such blades are being transported about premises.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-685, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-690 Veneer slicer and cutter.

(1) Each veneer slicer and each rotary veneer cutter shall have all revolving and other moving knives provided with guards.

(2) The requirements of chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety, shall be applicable to veneer slicers and cutters.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-78-690, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-690, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-690, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-695 Veneer clipper.

(1) Each veneer clipper shall have either automatic feed or shall be provided with a guard which will make it impossible to place any portion of the hand under the knife while feeding stock. Where practicable, such guard shall be of the vertical finger type.

(2) The rear of each manually operated clipper shall be guarded either by a screen or vertical finger guard which shall make it impossible for any portion of the hand to be placed under the knife while removing clipped stock.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-695, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-700 Veneer wringer (swede). 

The entry side of each veneer wringer other than glue spreader shall be enclosed, leaving only sufficient space to insert stock. A guard shall be provided to prevent the veneer from overriding the top roll and kicking back.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-700, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-705 The shake and shingle industry. 

The following terms and standards shall apply only in the manufacturing of shakes and shingles and these requirements shall take precedence over other sawmill and woodworking standards.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-705, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-70501 Definitions--Terms, general.

(1) “Block(s)” - those sections of a log cut in various lengths.

(2) “Block(s)” and “bolt(s)” may be considered to be synonymous.

(3) “Clipper saw” - a circular saw used to trim manufactured shingles.

(4) “Groover” - a cylinder-type knife (knives) similar to a planer knife (knives), used to cut grooves into the face surface of shakes or shingles.

(5) “Hip” and “ridge saw” - a circular saw used to cut various angles on the side edge of shakes or shingles.

(6) “Johnson bar” - a shaft used to control the feed of the carriage.

(7) “Knee bolter circular saw” - a stationary circular saw used to trim and debark blocks (the blocks are manually maneuvered onto a carriage and fed into a saw).

(8) “Log haul” - a power conveyor used to move logs to mill.

(9) “Packers” - employees who pack the manufactured shakes or shingles into bundles.

(10) “Panagraph power splitter” - a hydraulically operated wedge, manually positioned into place, used to split blocks.

(11) “Power saw splitter” - a stationary circular saw used to split (saw) blocks, (the blocks are manually maneuvered onto a carriage and fed into the saw).

(12) “Set works” - a component of the shingle machine, located on the machine frame, used to control the thickness of each shingle being manufactured.

(13) “Shake machine” - a band saw used to cut shake blanks into manufactured shakes.

(14) “Shake splitter” - a stationary hydraulically operated wedge, manually controlled, used to split shake blocks into shake blanks or boards.

(15) “Shim saw” - a circular saw used to re-cut manufactured shingles into narrow widths.

(16) “Shingle machine” - a machine used to manufacture shingles; composed of a feed, set works, and carriage system, all functioning in relation to a circular saw.

(17) “Shingle saw” - a circular saw used to cut shingles from blocks.

(18) “Spault” - the first and last section(s) of a block as it is cut into shingles.

(19) “Spault catcher” - a device located on the shingle machine next to the solid feed rolls, used to hold the last section of each block being cut (called a spault), in place.

(20) “Track or swing cutoff saw” - a circular saw used to cut blocks from a log.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-70501, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-70503 Shake and shingle machinery--General.

(1) Track or swing cutoff circular saw.

(a) Manually operated track or swing circular cutoff saws of the following types shall be set up, guarded and operated in accordance with chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety:

  • Saws into which materials to be cut are fed or positioned and/or held in position by hand pressure during the cutting stroke; and

  • Saws on which the cutting stroke is propelled by manual (hand) pressure; and

  • Saws on which the operator is within arm's reach of the blade when the blade is fully extended to the limit of operating travel and the operator is standing at the operator's normal control station/location.

(b) Large track or swing circular cutoff saws into which materials to be cut are fed by powered live rolls, conveyor belts and/or chains and which are operated from a remote operator's control station, defined as beyond arm's reach when the blade is fully extended to the limit of operating travel, shall be set up, guarded and operated in accordance with the following:

(i) A power operated track or swing cutoff circular saw shall have controls so arranged that operators are not positioned directly in front of the saw while making a cut.

(ii) All track or swing cutoff circular saws shall be completely encased or guarded when the saw is in the retract position, except for that portion of the guard that must be left open for the operation of the saw.

(iii) Track or swing cutoff circular saw guards shall be constructed of sheet metal not less than one-eighth inch thick, or a wood guard of not less than nominal two inch thick wood material, or equivalent.

Hinged or removable doors or gates will be permitted where necessary to permit adjusting and oiling.

(iv) The driving belt(s) on the track or swing cutoff circular saw shall be guarded in accordance with chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

(v) A safety catch shall be provided to prevent the track cutoff saw from leaving the track.

(2) Overhead deck splitter - panagraph.

(a) Panagraph splitters shall have a shroud incorporated on the upper pressure plate to eliminate the possibility of the splitter moving from the operating area. This shroud shall be constructed of solid design with a minimum width of three inches and a minimum thickness of three-eighths inch.

(b) Mechanically operated overhead splitters shall have handles moving opposite the stroke of the piston.

(c) When the leading edge of the panagraph splitter is completely extended, the maximum clearance from the deck to the splitting edge shall be two inches.

(3) Power splitter saw. Power splitters shall have spreaders behind the saw to prevent materials from squeezing the saw or being thrown back on the operator. The top of the saw shall be completely covered.

(4) Knee bolter circular saw.

(a) A safety catch shall be provided to prevent the bolter carriage from leaving the track.

(b) Bolter saws shall be provided with a canopy guard of sheet metal not less than one-eighth inch thick, or cast iron guard not less than three-sixteenths inch thick or a wood guard of not less than nominal four inch thick wood material or equivalent.

The bolter canopy guard shall completely enclose the rear portion of the saw. It shall be so arranged and adjusted as to cover the front of the saw; not to exceed twenty inches from the top of the carriage to the bottom of the guard on sixteen inch and eighteen inch block and twenty-six inches on twenty-four inch blocks, of the material being cut.

(c) Bolter saws shall be provided with wipers of belting or other suitable material. These wipers shall be installed on both sides of the saw in such a manner as to deflect knots, chips, slivers, etc., that are carried by the saw.

(d) A positive device shall be provided and used to manually lock and hold the feed table in the neutral position when not in use.

(e) That portion of all bolter saws which is below and behind the saw table shall be guarded by the exhaust hood or other device. Hinged or removable doors or gates will be permitted where necessary to permit adjusting and oiling.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-78-70503, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-70503, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-70503, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-70505 Shake machinery.

(1) Shake splitters.

(a) A positive deenergizing device shall be provided within ready reach of each shake splitter operator.

(b) Each shake splitter shall be provided with an adjustable stroke limiter to eliminate the splitting blade from striking the table.

(c) All splitters shall have a maximum clearance of four inches, from the splitting edge to the table surface, when the splitter is in the extended position.

(d) All splitter tables shall have a friction surface to reduce kick out of the material being split.

(e) Shake splitters shall not be operated at a speed that would cause chunks to be thrown in such a manner as to create a hazard.

(f) The use of foot pedal (treadle) mechanisms shall be provided with protection to prevent unintended operation from falling or moving objects or by accidental stepping onto the pedal.

(i) The pedal shall have a nonslip surface.

(ii) The pedal return spring shall be of the compression type, operating on a rod or guided within a hole or tube, or designed to prevent interleaving of spring coils in event of breakage.

(iii) If pedal counterweights are provided, the path of the travel of the weight shall be enclosed.

(2) Shake saw guards.

(a) Every shake band saw shall be equipped with a saw guard on both sides of the blade down to the top side of the guide.

(b) The outside saw guard shall extend a minimum of three and one-half inches below the bottom edge of the saw guide.

(c) The maximum opening between the saw guide and table rolls shall be fifteen inches.

(3) Shake saw band wheel guards.

(a) The band wheels on all shake band saws shall be completely encased or guarded on both sides. The guards shall be constructed of not less than No. 14 U.S. gauge metal or material equal in strength.

(b) The metal doors, on such guards, shall have a wood liner of a minimum thickness of one-half inch.

(4) Shake saw band wheel speeds and maintenance.

(a) No band wheel shall be run at a peripheral speed in excess of that recommended by the manufacturer.

(b) Each band wheel shall be carefully inspected at least once a month by management.

Any band wheel in which a crack is found in the rim or in a spoke shall be immediately discontinued from service until properly repaired.

(c) Each band saw frame shall be provided with a tension indicator.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-70505, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-70507 Upright shingle machine.

(1) Upright shingle saw guard.

(a) Every shingle machine carriage shall be equipped with a hand guard which:

(i) Projects at least one inch beyond the cutting edge of the saw.

(ii) Shall be located not more than one-half inch from the side of the saw blade.

(b) Shingle saw guards shall have a rim guard so designed and installed as to prevent chips and knots from flying from the saws. Such guards shall cover the edge of the saw to at least the depth of the teeth, except such part of the cutting edge as is essential for sawing the material.

(c) Saw arbors and couplings shall be guarded to prevent contact.

(d) Every part of a clipper saw blade, except that part which is exposed to trim shingles, shall be enclosed by a guard, so designed and installed to prevent contact with the clipper saw. An additional guard shall be installed not more than four inches above the clipper board and not more than one-half inch from the vertical plane of the saw.

(e) The underside of clipper saw boards shall be equipped with a finger guard to effectively protect the operator's fingers. The guard shall be a minimum of five inches long and one and one-quarter inches deep.

(2) Upright carriage guards.

(a) Automatic revolving cam set works and rocker arms, on machine frame, shall be guarded where exposed to contact.

(b) The spault catchers shall be not less than three-sixteenths inch thick and kept sharp at all times. Missing teeth shall be replaced.

(3) Carriage feed works.

(a) The pinion gear, bull wheel and Johnson bar, operating the saw carriage, shall be guarded where exposed to contact.

(b) Each shingle machine clutch treadle shall be arranged so that it is necessary to manually operate the treadle to start the machine. Devices which start the machine when the jaw treadle is released shall not be installed or used. The carriage shall have a brake to hold it in a neutral position.

(c) Carriage speed shall not exceed thirty-four strokes per minute.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-70507, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-70509 Related shake and shingle sawing machinery.

(1) Flat or taper saw. A wood or metal guard or its equivalent shall be secured to the sliding table at the side nearest the sawyer to protect him from contact with the cutting edge of the saw when a block is not in the cut.

(2) Hip and ridge saws. The hip and ridge saws shall be guarded with a hood-like device. This guard shall cover that portion of the saw not needed to cut the material, located above the cutting table.

(a) The remaining portion of the saw, located below the table, shall be guarded to prevent contact by employees.

(b) The hip and ridge guarding standard is applicable to both shake and shingle hip and ridge saws.

(3) Shim stock saws. The top ends and sides of the shim stock saws shall be guarded. All shim stock saw power transmission mechanism shall be guarded.

(4) Shake or shingle groover. The top ends and sides of the groover, to include the press rolls, shall be guarded to contain material or debris which can be thrown and to prevent contact. All groover machine power transmission mechanism shall be guarded in compliance with WAC 296-78-710.

(5) Circular saws, speeds and repairs.

(a) Maximum allowable speeds.

(i) No circular saw shall be run at a speed in excess of that recommended by the manufacturer.

(ii) Such speed shall be etched or otherwise permanently marked on the blade, and that speed shall not be exceeded.

(b) Repairs and reconditions.

(i) Shingle saws when reduced in size to less than forty inches in diameter shall be discontinued from service as shingle saws on upright or vertical machines.

(ii) Shingle saws may be reconditioned for use as clipper saws provided the surface is reground and the proper balance attained.

(iii) Shingle saws may be used to no less than thirty-six inches on flat or taper saw machines.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-70509, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-70511 Safety rules.

(1) General.

(a) Workers shall not leave shingle machines unattended while the carriage is in motion.

(b) Shingle blocks shall not be piled more than one tier high on tables or roll cases. Chunks may be placed horizontally one tier high on top of shingle blocks. Shingle blocks shall be piled in a stable manner, not more than seventy-two inches high, within the immediate working area of the shingle sawyer or the area shall be barricaded.

(c) Provisions shall be made to prevent blocks from falling into the packing area.

(d) On each machine operated by electric motors, positive means shall be provided for rendering such controls or devices inoperative while repairs or adjustments are being made to the machines they control.

(e) Workers shall not stand on top of blocks while in the process of splitting other blocks into bolts.

(2) Jointers (shingle). Shingle jointers shall have the front, or cutting face of the knives, housed except for a narrow slot through which the shingles may be fed against the knives.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-70511, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-710 Construction and isolated equipment.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-710, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71001 General.

(1) Construction when not specifically covered in these standards shall be governed by such other standards adopted by the department of Labor & Industries as may apply.

(2) All buildings, docks, tramways, walkways, log dumps and other structures shall be so designed, constructed, and maintained as to provide a safety factor of four. This means that all members shall be capable of supporting four times the maximum load to be imposed. This provision refers to buildings, docks and so forth designed and constructed subsequent to the effective date of these standards and also refers in all cases where either complete or major changes or repairs are made to such buildings, docks, tramways, walkways, log dumps and other structures.

(3) Basements on ground floors under mills shall be evenly surfaced, free from unnecessary obstructions and debris, and provided with lighting facilities in compliance with the requirements of the safety and health core rules, WAC 296-800-210.

(4) All engines, motors, transmission machinery or operating equipment installed in mill basements or ground floors shall be equipped with standard safeguards for the protection of workers.

(5) Flooring of buildings, ramps and walkways not subject to supporting motive equipment shall be of not less than two-inch wood planking or material of equivalent structural strength.

(6) Flooring of buildings, ramps, docks, trestles and other structure required to support motive equipment shall be of not less than full two and one-half inch wood planing or material of equivalent structural strength. However, where flooring is covered by steel floor plates, two inch wood planking or material or equivalent structural strength may be used.

(7) Walkways, docks, and platforms.

(a) Walkways, docks and platforms shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-735 through 296-24-75011 and WAC 296-800-270.

(b) Maintenance. Walkways shall be evenly floored and kept in good repair.

(c) Where elevated platforms are used they shall be equipped with stairways or ladders in accordance with WAC 296-24-765 through 296-24-81013, WAC 296-800-250 and chapter 296-876 WAC, Ladders, portable and fixed.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 06016-020 (Order 06-10), § 296-78-71001, filed 07/24/06, effective 12/01/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. 04-18-080 (Order 04-09), § 296-78-71001, filed 08/31/04, effective 11/01/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. 03-06-076 (Order 02-33), § 296-78-71001, filed 03/04/03, effective 08/01/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-71001, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71001, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71003 Floor and wall openings.

(1) All floor and wall openings either temporary or permanent, shall be protected as required by WAC 296-24-750 through 296-24-75011 and WAC 296-800-260.

(2) The area under floor openings shall, where practical, be fenced off. When this is not practical, the areas shall be plainly marked with yellow lines and telltails shall be installed to hang within five and one-half feet of the ground or floor level.

(3) Where floor openings are used to drop materials from one level to another, audible warning systems shall be installed and used to indicate to employees on the lower level that material is to be dropped.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-71003, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-71003, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71003, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71005 Floors, docks, platforms and runways.

(1) Faces of docks except on loading and unloading sides of rail and truck loading platforms, and runways used for the operation of lift trucks and other vehicles shall have a guard or shear timber eight by eight inches set over three inch blocks and securely fastened to the floor by bolts of not less than five-eighths inch diameter.

(2) The flooring of buildings, docks and passageways shall be kept in good repair at all times. When a hazardous condition develops that cannot be immediately repaired, the area shall be fenced off and not used until adequate repairs are made.

(3) All working areas shall be kept free from unnecessary obstruction and debris.

(4) Floors around machines and other places where workers are required to stand shall be provided with effective means to prevent slipping.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 21 296-78-71005, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71007 Footwalks and passageways.

(1) All footwalks and passageways subject to slipping hazards due to peculiarities of conditions or processes of the operation shall be provided with nonslip surfaces.

(2) Walkways in accordance with WAC 296-78-71001(8) shall be provided over roll casings, transfer tables, conveyors or other moving parts except where stepping over such equipment is not in connection with usual and necessary traffic.

(3) Walkways alongside of sorting tables shall be of sufficient width to provide safe working area. Such walkways shall be evenly floored and kept in good repair at all times. They shall be kept free from obstructions and debris.

(4) When employees are required to clear plug-ups in veneer trays or lumber sorting trays, adequate walkways with standard guardrails shall be provided for access to the trays whenever possible. When walkways are not provided, safety belts or harnesses with lanyards, tied off to substantial anchorages, shall be provided and used at all times.

(5) Walkways and stairways with standard hand rails shall be provided wherever space will permit, for oilers and other employees whose duties require them to go consistently to elevated and hazardous locations.

(a) Where such passageways are over walkways or work areas, standard toeboards shall be provided.

(b) Protection as required by chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety, shall be provided against contact with transmission machinery or moving conveyors.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-78-71007, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71007, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71009 Stairways and ladders.

(1) Stairways shall be used in preference over ladders wherever possible. Stairways or ladders, whichever is used, shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with the provisions of WAC 296-24-75009 through 296-24-81013, WAC 296-800-250 and chapter 296-876 WAC, Ladders portable and fixed.

(2) Doors shall not open directly on a flight of stairs.

(3) Permanent ladders shall be fastened securely at both top and bottom.

(4) Portable ladders shall not be used upon footing other than suitable type.

(5) Hooks or other means of securing portable ladders when in use, shall be provided.

(6) Portable ladders shall not be used for oiling machinery which is in motion.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 06-16-020 (Order 06-10), § 296-78-71009, filed 07/24/06, effective 12/01/06.Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-71009, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71009, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71011 Egress and exit.

(1) In all enclosed buildings, means of egress shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of WAC 296-800-310.

(2) All swinging doors shall be provided with windows, the bottom of which shall be not more than forty-eight inches above the floor. One window shall be provided for each section of double swinging doors. All such windows shall be of shatter proof or safety glass unless otherwise protected against breakage.

(3) Outside exits shall open outward. Where sliding doors are used as exits, an inner door not less than two feet six inches by six feet shall be cut inside each of the main doors and arranged to open outward.

(4) At least two fire escapes or substantial outside stairways, shall be provided for mill buildings where the floor level is more than eight feet above the ground.

(a) Buildings over one hundred fifty feet in length shall have at least one additional fire escape or substantial outside stairway for each additional one hundred fifty feet of length or fraction thereof.

(b) Passageways to fire escapes or outside stairways shall be marked and kept free of obstructions at all times.

(c) Fire protection. The requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part G-3 of the general safety and health standard, and WAC 296-800-300 of the safety and health core rules, and chapter 296-811 WAC, Fire brigades, shall be complied with in providing the necessary fire protection for sawmills.

(d) Fire drills shall be held at least quarterly and shall be documented.

(5) Where a doorway opens upon a roadway, railroad track, or upon a tramway or dock over which vehicles travel, a barricade or other safeguard and a warning sign shall be placed to prevent workers from stepping directly into moving traffic.

(6) Tramways and trestles shall be substantially supported by piling or framed bent construction which shall be frequently inspected and maintained in good repair at all times. Tramways or trestles used both for vehicular and pedestrian traffic shall have a walkway with standard hand rail at the outer edge and shear timber on the inner edge, and shall provide three feet clearance to vehicles. When walkways cross over other thoroughfares, they shall be solidly fenced at the outer edge to a height of 42 inches over such thoroughfares.

(7) Where tramways and trestles are built over railroads they shall have a vertical clearance of twenty-two feet above the top of the rails. When constructed over carrier docks or roads, they shall have a vertical clearance of not less than six feet above the drivers foot rest on the carrier, and in no event shall this clearance be less than twelve feet from the surface of the lower roadway or dock.

(8) Walkways (either temporary or permanent) shall be not less than twenty-four inches wide and two inches thick, nominal size, securely fastened at each end. When such walkways are used on an incline the angle shall not be greater than twenty degrees from horizontal.

(9) Walkways from the shore or dock to floats or barges shall be securely fastened at the shore end only and clear space provided for the other end to adjust itself to the height of the water.

(10) Cleats of one by four inch material shall be fastened securely across walkways at uniform intervals of eighteen inches whenever the grade is sufficient to create a slipping hazard.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. 06-01-073 (Order 05-20), § 296-78-71011, filed 12/20/05, effective 03/01/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. 03-06-076 (Order 02-33), § 296-78-71011, filed 03/04/03, effective 08/01/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-71011, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71011, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71013 Cableways.

(1) (a) Inclined cableways shall have a central line between the rails in practical alignment with the center of the hoisting drums. A substantial bumper shall be installed at the foot of each incline.

(b) Barricades or warning signs shall be installed to warn pedestrians to stand clear of the cables on inclined cableways. The cables shall not be put into motion without activating an alarm system, either audible or visible, which will inform anyone on the tracks to stand clear.

(2) Employees shall not ride on or stand below the cars on an inclined cableway.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71013, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71015 Tanks and chemicals.

(1) All open vats and tanks into which workers may fall shall be guarded with standard railings or screen guards in all cases where such guarding is possible with regard to practical operation.

(2) Foundations of elevated tanks shall be accessible for inspections. When the tank platform is more than five feet above the ground a stairway or ladder shall be permanently attached.

(3) Every open tank over five feet in height shall be equipped with fixed standard ladders both inside and out, extending from the bottom to the rim of the tank arranged to be accessible to each other, so far as local conditions permit.

(4) The use of chemicals for treating of lumber for prevention of sap stain or mold or as preservatives, shall conform to the requirements of chapter 298-835 WAC, Dipping and coating operations (dip tanks).

(a) Storage, handling, and use of chemicals. Threshold limits. Employees shall not be exposed to airborne concentration of toxic dusts, vapors, mists or gases that exceed the threshold limit values set forth in chapter 296-841 WAC, Airborne contaminants.

(b) Protective equipment. The use of chemicals shall be controlled so as to protect employees from harmful exposure to toxic materials. Where necessary, employees shall be provided with and required to wear such protective equipment as will afford adequate protection against harmful exposure as required by WAC 296-800-160, and chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators.

(5) (a) Means shall be provided and used to collect any excess of chemicals used in treating lumber so as to protect workers from accidental contact with harmful concentrations of toxic chemicals or fumes.

(b) Dip tanks containing flammable or combustible liquids shall be constructed, maintained and used in accordance with chapter 296-835 WAC, Dipping and coating operations (dip tanks).

(c) An evacuation plan shall be developed and implemented for all employees working in the vicinity of dip tanks using flammable and/or combustible liquids. A copy of the plan shall be available at the establishment for inspection at all times. Every employee shall be made aware of the evacuation plan and know what to do in the event of an emergency and be evacuated in accordance with the plan. The plan shall be reviewed with employees at least quarterly and documented.

(d) When automatic foam, automatic carbon dioxide or automatic dry chemical extinguishing systems are used, an alarm device shall be activated to alert employees in the dip tank area before and during the activation of the system. The following combinations of extinguishment systems when used in conjunction with the evacuation plan as stated above will be acceptable in lieu of bottom drains:

(i) A dip tank cover with an automatic foam extinguishing system under the cover, or an automatic carbon dioxide system, or an automatic dry chemical extinguishing system, or an automatic water spray extinguishing system;

(ii) An automatic dry chemical extinguishing system with an automatic carbon dioxide system or a second automatic dry chemical extinguishing system or an automatic foam extinguishing system;

(iii) An automatic carbon dioxide system with a second automatic carbon dioxide system or an automatic foam extinguishing system.

(e) The automatic water spray extinguishing systems, automatic foam extinguishing systems, and dip tank covers shall conform with the requirements of chapter 296-835 WAC, Dipping and coating operations (dip tanks).  The automatic carbon dioxide systems and dry chemical extinguishing system shall conform with the requirements of WAC 296-24-615 and 296-24-620.

(6) Where workers are engaged in the treating of lumber with chemicals or are required to handle lumber or other materials so treated, the workers shall be provided with, at no cost to the worker, and required to use such protective equipment as will provide complete protection against contact with toxic chemicals or fumes therefrom.

(7) Sanitation requirements. The requirements of WAC 296-800-220 and 296-800-230, (safety and health core rules), shall govern sanitation practices.

(8) The sides of steam vats and soaking pits unless otherwise guarded shall extend forty-two inches above the floor level. The floor adjacent thereto shall be of nonslip construction.

(9) Large steam vats or soaking pits, divided into sections, shall be provided with substantial walkways between each section, each walkway to be provided with standard railings which may be removable if necessary.

(10) Covers shall be removed only from that portion of the steaming vats on which workers are working and a portable railing shall be placed at this point to protect the operators.

(11) Workers shall not ride or step on logs in steam vats.

[Statutory Authority: Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 05-03-093 (Order 04-41), § 296-78-71015, filed 01/18/05, effective 03/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-71015, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-71015, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96; 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), 296-78-71015, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71015, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71017 Dry kilns.

(1) Dry kilns shall be so constructed upon solid foundations that tracks will not sag. Dry kilns shall be provided with suitable walkways. Each kiln shall have doors that operate from the inside and be provided with escape doors of adequate height and width to accommodate an average size man, that also operates from the inside, and shall be located in or near the main door. Escape doors shall swing in the direction of exit. Kiln doors and door carriers shall be fitted with safety devices to prevent the doors or carriers from falling.

(2) Ladders. A fixed ladder, in accordance with the requirements of chapter 296-876 WAC, Ladders, portable and fixed, or other means shall be provided to permit access to the roof. Where controls and machinery are mounted on the roof, a permanent stairway with standard handrail shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-800-250.

(3) A heated room shall be provided for the use of the kiln operator in inclement weather. He should remain in such room for at least ten minutes after leaving a hot kiln before going to cold outside air.

(4) Where operating pits are used, they shall be well ventilated, drained and lighted. Substantial gratings shall be installed at the kiln floor line. Steam lines shall be provided with insulation wherever exposed to contact by employees. Fans shall be enclosed by standard safeguards.

(5) Mechanical equipment. All belts, pulleys, blowers, and other exposed moving equipment used in or about kilns shall be guarded in accordance with chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 07-05-062, 07-06-005 (Order 06-38), § 296-78-71015, filed 02/20/07, effective 04/01/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 06-16-020 (Order 06-10), § 296-78-71017, filed 07/24/06, effective 12/01/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-78-71017, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-71017, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-71017, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71017, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71019 Exhaust systems.

(1) Air requirements in buildings, where persons are habitually employed, shall meet the requirements of the general occupational health standard, WAC 296-62-100 through 296-62-11013.

(2) Where the natural ventilation is not sufficient to remove dust, fumes or vapors that create or constitute a hazard, additional means of removal shall be provided.

(3) All mills containing one or more machines whose operations create dust, shavings, chips or slivers during a period of time equal to or greater than one-fourth of the working day or shift, shall be equipped with a collecting system either continuous or automatic in action and of sufficient strength and capacity to thoroughly remove such refuse from the points of operation of the machines and the work areas.

(4) Each woodworking machine that creates dust, shavings, chips, or slivers shall be equipped with an exhaust or conveyor system located and adjusted to remove the maximum amount of refuse from the point of operation and immediate vicinity.

(5) Blower, collecting and exhaust systems shall be designed, constructed and maintained in accordance with American National Standards Z33.1 - 1961 (for the installation of blower and exhaust systems for dust, stock and vapor removal or conveying) and Z12.20 - 1962 (R1969) (code for the prevention of dust explosions in woodworking and wood flour manufacturing plants).

(6) Fans used for ventilating shall be of ample capacity, as evidenced by the performance schedules of the manufacturers, and shall be guarded when exposed to contact. Hoods, dust conveyors, dust collectors and other accessary equipment shall be large enough to insure free intake and discharge.

(7) The outlet or discharge of all ventilating equipment shall be so arranged that at no time will the dust, vapors, gases or other air borne impurities discharged, create or constitute a hazard.

(8) Where a hood is used to form a part or all of the guard required on a given machine, it shall be constructed of not less than ten U.S. gauge sheet metal, or if of cast iron it shall be not less than three-sixteenths inches in thickness.

(9) All exhaust pipes shall be of such construction and internal dimensions as to minimize the possibility of clogging. They shall be readily accessible for cleaning.

(10) All exhaust pipes shall empty into settling or dust chambers which shall effectively prevent the dust or refuse from entering any work area. Such settling or dust chambers shall be so designed and operated as to reduce to a minimum the danger of fire or dust explosions.

(11) In lieu of a general ventilating system, exhaust or blower units may be installed on the dust or fume producing machine, provided the required protection is secured thereby.

(12) When proper ventilation is not provided, and temporary hazardous conditions are therefore encountered, the employer shall furnish approved respiratory and visual equipment: Provided, however, That the exposure to such hazard shall not be for more than two hours duration. Protective measures and equipment shall meet the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators.

(13) Provisions for the daily removal of refuse shall be made in all operations not required to have an exhaust system, or having refuse too heavy, or bulky, or otherwise unsuitable to be handled by an exhaust system.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 07-03-163 (Order 06-30), § 296-78-71019, filed 01/24/07, effective 04/01/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 05-03-093 (Order 04-41), § 296-78-71019, filed 01/18/05, effective 03/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-71019, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-10 (Order 98-10), 296-78-71019, filed 05/04/99, effective 09/01/99.]Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71019, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71021 Spray painting. 

All spray painting operations shall be carried on in accordance with the requirements of the general safety and health standard, WAC 296-24-370 through 296-24-37027 and the general occupational health standard, WAC 296-62-11019.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71021, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71023 Lighting. 

The lighting and illumination requirements of the safety and health core rules, WAC 296-800-210, shall apply.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-71023, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 82-13-045 (Order 82-22), 296-78-71023, filed 6/11/82. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71023, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71025 Gas piping and appliances. 

All gas piping and appliances shall be installed in accordance with the American National Standard Requirements for Gas Appliances and Gas Piping Installations, Z21.30 - 1964.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71025, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-715 Mechanical, steam and electrical equipment.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-715, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71501 General provisions.

(1) All machinery or other equipment located or used on the premises of the operation or in the processes incidental thereto, shall be provided and maintained with approved standard safeguards, irrespective of ownership.

(2) Machines shall be so located that each operator will have sufficient space in which to handle material with the least possible interference from or to other workers or machines.

(3) Machines shall be so placed that it will not be necessary for the operator to stand where passing traffic creates a hazard.

(4) Aisles of sufficient width to permit the passing of vehicles or employees without crowding shall be provided in all work areas and stock or storage rooms.

(5) All metal decking around machinery shall be equipped to effectively prevent slipping.

(6) All machinery or equipment started by a control so located as to create impaired vision of any part of such machinery or equipment shall be provided with an audible warning device, where such machinery or equipment is exposed to contact at points not visible to the operator. Such devices shall be sounded before starting up unless positive mechanical or electrical interlocking controls are provided which will prevent starting until all such posts are cleared.

(7) A mechanical or electrical power control device shall be provided at each machine which will make it possible for the operator to stop the machine feed without leaving his position at the point of operation.

(8) All machines operated by means of treadles, levers, or other similar devices, shall be provided with positive and approved nonrepeat devices except where such machine is being used as an automatic repeating device.

(9) Operating levers and treadles on all machines or machinery shall be so located and protected that they cannot be shifted or tripped accidentally.

(10) All power driven machinery shall be stopped and brought to a complete standstill before any repairs or adjustments are made or pieces of material or refuse removed, except where motion is necessary to make adjustments.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71501, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71503 Lock out--Tag out.

(1) To avoid accidental activation of machinery, electrical devices or other equipment which could create a hazardous condition while performing maintenance, repair, cleanup or construction work, the main disconnect(s) (line circuit breakers) shall first be locked out and tagged in accordance with the following provisions:

(2) Effective date. Effective July 1, 1982, only padlocks or other equivalent protective devices shall be used for locking out the main disconnect(s) (line circuit breakers) of machinery, electrical devices or other equipment that is shut down while maintenance, repair, cleanup, construction work or other type of work is done to the equipment. Tags shall be used to supplement the padlocks or other equivalent protective devices, and shall be used only for informational purposes.

(3) Padlocks, tags or equivalent protective devices to be supplied. The employer shall supply and the employee(s) shall use as many padlocks or other equivalent protective devices as are necessary to effectively lock out all affected equipment.

(4) Lock out plan. An effective lock out plan shall be formulated in writing and all concerned employees so informed. The plan shall contain specific procedures for locking out equipment, information to be contained on supplemental tags and specific procedures for unlocking equipment after repairs, cleanup, etc., have been completed.

(5) Informational tags. Tags used for providing supplemental information with lock out padlocks or other equivalent protective devices shall contain the name of the person authorizing placement, reason for placing, date, signature of person placing tag and such other relative information as deemed necessary by the person placing the tag.

(6) Lock out by pushbutton only. Locking out a machine or item of equipment by use of a pushbutton or other local control device only will not be acceptable as meeting the intent of these rules.

(7) Coordination of locking out devices. When repair, adjustment, cleanup, maintenance or construction work is necessary and the lock out procedures must be followed by any person not familiar with all power sources or material entry sources to any area involved, that person shall consult with the operator, supervisor, or some person that is capable of informing him of proper lock out procedures and supplemental tagging information.

(8) Lock out before removing guards. Equipment shall be stopped and locked out before employees remove guards or reach into any potentially hazardous area. The only exception to this rule will be when equipment must be in motion in order to make proper adjustments.

(9) Removal of lock outs. Each person actively engaged in the repair, maintenance, cleanup, etc., shall lock out the affected equipment and place the informational tag. Upon completion of the work and reinstallation of the guards, that person shall personally remove his lock and tag, except when it is positively determined that an employee has left the premises without removing his lock and tag, other persons may remove the locks and tags in accordance with a procedure formulated by each firm and approved by the division of industrial safety and health.

(10) Valves to be locked and tagged out. Each valve used to control the flow of hazardous materials into, or used to activate the equipment being worked on, shall be locked and tagged out.

(11) Piping systems deactivated. Prior to working on piping systems containing pressurized or hazardous materials, the valve(s) controlling the flow to the affected area shall be locked and tagged out. The piping in the area to be worked on shall be drained and purged, if needed. If the piping contains hazardous materials, the piping shall be isolated from the work area by the insertion of blank flanges in the piping system.

(12) Pipe lines without valves. If pipelines or ducts are constructed without valves or closures that can be locked out, the lines or ducts shall be broken at a flange and a blank flange inserted to stop accidental flow of any hazardous material.

(13) Testing after lock out. After locking out and tagging equipment, a test shall be conducted to ascertain that the equipment has been made inoperative or the flow of hazardous material has been positively stopped. Precautions shall be taken to ascertain that persons will not be subjected to hazard while conducting the test if power source or flow of material is not shut off.

(14) Temporary or alternate power to be avoided. Whenever possible, temporary or alternate sources of power to the equipment being worked on shall be avoided. If the use of such power is necessary, all affected employees shall be informed and the source of temporary or alternate power shall be identified.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71503, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-71505 Mechanical power transmission apparatus.

(1) Machines and other equipment shall not be oiled while in motion, unless provided with guards or other devices to permit oiling without any possibility of contact with moving parts of machinery.

(2) Inspections shall be made to assure that shaftings, bearings and machines are in proper alignment at all times and that bolts in shaft hangars, couplings and boxes are tight.

(3) Isolated bearings or other equipment not reached by walkway shall be served by a ladder or other means of safe access.

(4) Running belts under power on or off pulleys shall be accomplished by mechanical means which will not expose employees to moving elements of the operation.

(5) Counterweights located on or near passageways or work areas shall be provided with enclosures. Overhead counterweights shall be provided with substantial safety chains or cables, or otherwise secured against falling.

(6) The construction, operation, and maintenance of all mechanical power-transmission apparatus shall be in accordance with chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

(7) Baffles shall be erected, where necessary, to protect employees from breaking belts, chains, ropes or cables.

(8) Overhead horizontal belts, chains or rope drives shall be provided with guards.

(9) Hydraulic systems. Means shall be provided to block, chain, or otherwise secure equipment normally supported by hydraulic pressure so as to provide for safe maintenance.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-78-71505, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-71505, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-720 Boiler and pressure vessels. 

Boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, maintained and inspected in accordance with the provisions of the boiler and unfired pressure vessel law, chapter 70.79 RCW, and chapter 296-104 WAC as administered by the boiler inspection section of the department of Labor & Industries.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-720, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-725 Nonionizing radiation.

(1) Only qualified and trained employees shall be assigned to install, operate, adjust, and maintain laser equipment. Proof of qualification of the laser equipment operator shall be available and in possession of operator at all times.

(2) Employees, when working in areas in which a potentially hazardous exposure (see WAC 296-62-09005(4)) to direct or reflected laser radiation exists, shall be provided with antilaser eye protection devices specified in WAC 296-62-09005, general occupational health standards.

(3) Areas in which lasers are used shall be posted with standard laser warning placards.

(4) Beam shutters or caps shall be utilized, or the laser turned off, when laser transmission is not actually required. When the laser is left unattended for a substantial period of time, such as during lunch hour, overnight, or at change of shifts, the laser shall be turned off or shutters or caps shall be utilized.

(5) The laser beam shall not be directed at employees.

(6) Only mechanical or electronic means shall be used as a detector for guiding the internal alignment of the laser.

(7) The laser equipment shall bear such labels, logos and data placards to indicate maximum output and class designation as required of the manufacturer at time of sale, by I.A.W. Part 1040, CFR Title 21. Such labels, logos, data placards, etc., shall be maintained in a legible condition.

(8) When it is raining or snowing, or when there is dust or fog in the air, and it is impracticable to cease laser system operation, employees shall be kept out of range of the area of source and target during such weather conditions.

(9) Employees shall not be exposed to light intensities in excess of:

(a) Direct staring: One micro-watt per square centimeter;

(b) Incidental observing: One milliwatt per square centimeter;

(c) Diffused reflected light: Two and one-half watts per square centimeter.

(10) The laser equipment shall not be modified except by the manufacturer.

(11) Laser unit in operation shall be set up above the heads of the employees, when possible.

(12) Employees shall not be exposed to radio frequency/microwave radiation in excess of the permissible exposure limits specified in WAC 296-62-09005.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-725, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-725, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-730 Electrical service and equipment.

(1) Electrical service and equipment shall be constructed, maintained, inspected and operated according to chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards, Part L, and WAC 296-800-280 of the safety and health core rules.

(2) Repairs. Electrical repairs shall be made only by authorized and qualified personnel.

(3) Identification. Marks of identification on electrical equipment shall be clearly visible.

(4) Protective equipment. Rubber protective equipment shall be provided as required by WAC 296-800-160 of the safety and health core rules.

(5) Open switches. Before working on electrical equipment, switches shall be open and shall be locked out.

(6) Concealed conductors. Where electrical conductors are known to be concealed, no work shall be performed until such conductors are located.

(7) Overload relays. Overload relays shall be reset by authorized qualified personnel only.

(8) Passageways to panels. Passageways to switch centers or panels shall at all times be kept free from obstruction. Not less than three feet of clear space shall be maintained in front of switch centers or panels at all times.

(9) Bridging fuses. Fuses shall not be doubled or bridged.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 07-03-163 (Order 06-30), § 29678-730, filed 01/24/07, effective 04/01/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-730, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-78-730, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-730, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-735 Elevators, moving walks. 

Elevators, moving walks and other lifting devices intended for either passenger or freight service shall be constructed, maintained, inspected and operated in accordance with the provisions of chapter 70.87 RCW, WAC 296-24-875 through 296-24-90009 of the general safety and health standards, and those specific standards which are applicable from the division of building and construction safety inspection services, elevator section.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-735, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-735, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-740 Transportation--Lumber handling equipment -- Cranes -- Construction.

(1) All apparatus shall be designed throughout, with not less than the following factors of safety, under static full rated load stresses, based on ultimate strength of the material used:

Material

Factor of Safety

Cast iron

12

Cast steel

8

Structural steel

5

Forged steel

5

Cables

5

(2) A notice shall be placed on every crane and hoist showing the maximum allowable load in pounds or tons. This notice shall be placed in such a manner as to be clearly legible from the floor.

(3) Cranes shall be of what is known as “all steel construction.” No cast iron shall be used in parts subject to tension except in drums, trolley sides, bearings, brackets and brake shoes.

(4) The construction of cranes shall be such that all parts may be safely lubricated and inspected when cranes are not in operation.

(5) Bolts subject to stress shall be of the through type and all bolts shall be equipped with approved protection so that the bolt will not work loose or nuts work off.

(6) Outside crane cages shall be enclosed. There shall be windows on three sides of the cage and windows in the front, and the side opposite the door shall be the full width of the cage.

(7) Where a tool box or receptacle is used for the storing of oil cans, tools, etc., it shall be permanently secured in the cage or on the foot-walk of outside cranes and on the foot-walk of inside cranes. Tool boxes of hot metal cranes shall be constructed of metal.

(8) All gears on cranes shall be provided with standard guards.

(9) Keys projecting from revolving shafts shall be guarded.

(10) A braking apparatus shall be provided on every type of crane and shall be so designed and installed as to be capable of effectually braking a weight of at least one and one-half times the full rated load.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-740, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-745 Electrical equipment.

(1) All exposed current-carrying parts except conductors, connected to circuits above three hundred volts to ground shall be so isolated, insulated, or guarded that no employee can come in contact with them. Exposed parts less than 300 volts shall be protected in some suitable way against possible accidental contact. Exposed metallic parts of conduit armored cable or molding shall be permanently grounded.

(2) Guards for the current-carrying parts of unisolated electrical equipment, such as controllers, motors, transformers, automatic cutouts, circuit breakers, switches, and other devices shall consist of cabinets, casings, or shields of permanently grounded metal or of insulating material.

(3) All parts of electrical equipment, such as fuses and the handles and arc chutes of circuit breakers, shall be so isolated or guarded that the liability of employees being struck or burned by sparking, flashing or movement during operation is reduced to a minimum.

(4) All exposed noncurrent carrying metal parts of electrical equipment shall be permanently grounded. The ground connection through well bonded track rails will be considered satisfactory.

(5) The metallic parts of portable cranes, derricks, hoists, and similar equipment on which wires, cables, chains, or other conducting objects are maintained shall be provided with an effective protective ground, where operated in the vicinity of supply lines.

(6) Readily accessible means shall be provided whereby all conductors and equipment located in cranes can be disconnected entirely from the source of energy at a point as near as possible to the main current collectors.

(7) Means shall be provided to prevent the starting and operation of equipment by unauthorized persons.

(8) The control levers of traveling cranes shall be so located that the operator can readily face the direction of travel.

(9) A hoist limiting device shall be provided for each hoist.

(10) All fuses shall be of the enclosed arcless type.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-745, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-750 Chains, wire rope, cables and fiber rope.

(1) Ropes, cables, slings, and chains.

(a) Safe usage. Ropes, cables, slings, and chains shall be used in accordance with safe use practices recommended by the manufacturer or within safe limits recommended by the equipment manufacturer when used in conjunction with it.

Work by qualified persons. Installation, inspection, maintenance, repair, and testing of ropes, cables, slings, and chains shall be done only by persons qualified to do such work.

(b) Proof testing. The employer shall ensure that before use, each new, repaired, or reconditioned alloy steel chain sling, including all welded components in the sling assembly, shall be proof tested by the sling manufacturer or equivalent entity, in accordance with paragraph 5.2 of the American Society of Testing and Materials Specification A391.65 (ANSI G61.1-1968). The employer shall retain the certificate of the proof test and shall make it available for examination. When a chain sling assembly is made up of segments of proof tested alloy chain and proof tested individual components such as mechanical coupling links, hooks and similar devices; it is not necessary to test the assembled unit, when appropriate test certification of individual components is available and the assembled sling is appropriately tagged by the manufacturer or equal entity. The sling shall not be used in excess of the rated capacity of the weakest component.

(c) Slings. Slings and their fittings and fastenings, when in use, shall be inspected daily for evidence of overloading, excessive wear, or damage. Slings found to be defective shall be removed from service.

(2) Proper storage shall be provided for slings while not in use.

(3) Protection shall be provided between the sling and sharp unyielding surfaces of the load to be lifted.

(4) Hooks. No open hook shall be used in rigging to lift any load where there is hazard from relieving the tension on the hook from the load or hook catching or fouling.

(5) Ropes or cables. Wire rope or cable shall be inspected when installed and once each day thereafter, when in use. It shall be removed from hoisting or load-carrying service when kinked or when one of the following conditions exist:

(a) When three broken wires are found in one lay of 6 by 6 wire rope.

(b) When six broken wires are found in one lay of 6 by 19 wire rope.

(c) When nine broken wires are found in one lay of 6 by 37 wire rope.

(d) When eight broken wires are found in one lay of 8 by 19 wire rope.

(e) When marked corrosion appears.

(f) Wire rope of a type not described herein shall be removed from service when four percent of the total number of wires composing such rope are found to be broken in one lay.

(g) Condemned. When wire rope, slings or cables deteriorate through rust, wear, broken wires, kinking or other conditions, to the extent there is a reasonable doubt that the necessary safety factor is maintained, the use of such equipment shall be discontinued.

(6) Wire rope removed from service due to defects shall be plainly marked or identified as being unfit for further use on cranes, hoists, and other load-carrying devices.

(7) The ratio between the rope diameter and the drum, block, sheave, or pulley tread diameter shall be such that the rope will adjust itself to the bend without excessive wear, deformation, or injury. In no case shall the safe value of drums, blocks, sheaves, or pulleys be reduced when replacing such items unless compensating changes are made for rope used and for safe loading limits.

(8) Drums, sheaves, and pulleys. Drums, sheaves, and pulleys shall be smooth and free from surface defects liable to injure rope. Drums, sheaves, or pulleys having eccentric bores or cracked hubs, spokes, or flanges shall be removed from service.

(9) Connections. Connections, fittings, fastenings, and other parts used in connection with ropes and cables shall be of the quality, size and strength recommended by the manufacturer for the use intended. These connections shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

(10) Socketing, splicing, and seizing.

(a) Socketing, splicing, and seizing of cables shall be performed only by qualified persons.

(b) All eye splices shall be made in a manner recommended by the manufacturer and wire rope thimbles of proper size shall be fitted in the eye, except that in slings the use of thimbles shall be optional.

(11) Wire rope clips attached with U-bolts shall have these bolts on the dead or short end of the rope. The U-bolt nuts shall be retightened immediately after initial load carrying use and at frequent intervals thereafter. The number and spacing of clips shall be as follows:

Improved Plow Steel Diameter of Rope

Number of Clips (Drop Forged)

Required Other Material

Minimum Space Between Clips

3/8 to 5/8"

3

4

3-3/4"

3/4"

4

5

4-1/2"

7/8"

4

5

5-1/4"

1"

5

6

6"

1-1/8"

6

6

6-3/4"

1-1/4"

6

7

7-1/2"

1-3/8"

7

7

8-1/4"

1-1/2"

7

8

9"

(a) When a wedge socket-type fastening is used, the dead or short end of the cable shall be clipped with a U-bolt or otherwise made secure against loosening.

(b) Fittings. Hooks, shackles, rings, pad eyes, and other fittings that show excessive wear or that have been bent, twisted, or otherwise damaged shall be removed from service.

(12) Running lines. Running lines of hoisting equipment located within six feet six inches of the ground or working level shall be boxed off or otherwise guarded, or the operating area shall be restricted.

(13) Preventing abrasion. The reeving of a rope shall be so arranged as to minimize chafing or abrading while in use.

(14) Sheave guards. Bottom sheaves shall be protected by close fitting guards to prevent cable from jumping the sheave.

(15) There shall be not less than two full wraps of hoisting cable on the drums of cranes and hoists at all times of operation.

(16) Where the cables are allowed to pile on the drums of cranes, the drums shall have a flange at each end to prevent the cables from slipping off the drum.

(17) Chains. Chains used in load carrying service shall be inspected before initial use and weekly thereafter. If at any time any three-foot length of chain is found to have stretched one-third the length of a link it shall be discarded.

(18) Chains shall be spliced in compliance with the requirements of the general safety and health standard, WAC 296-24-29413.

(19) Wherever annealing of chains is attempted, it shall be done in properly equipped annealing furnaces and under the direct supervision of a competent person thoroughly versed in heat treating.

Chain shall be normalized or annealed periodically as recommended by the manufacturer.

(20) Fiber rope.

(a) Frozen fiber rope shall not be used in load carrying service.

(b) Fiber rope that has been subjected to acid shall not be used for load carrying purposes.

(c) Fiber rope shall be protected from abrasion by padding where it is fastened or drawn over square corners or sharp or rough surfaces.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-750, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-750, filed 8/27/81.]

Chapter 296-78 Continued

End of main content, page footer follows.

Access Washington official state portal

© Washington State Dept. of Labor & Industries. Use of this site is subject to the laws of the state of Washington.