Sawmills and Woodworking Operations
Chapter 296-78

WAC 296-800-150 in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) formatFor printing
New Rule Activity Related Policies

WAC

296-78-500 Foreword.
296-78-505 Definitions applicable to this chapter.
296-78-510 Education and first-aid standards.
296-78-515 Management's responsibility.
296-78-520 Employee's responsibility.
296-78-525 Accident-prevention programs.
296-78-530 Safety and health committee plan.
296-78-535 Safety bulletin board.
296-78-540 First-aid training and certification
296-78-545 First-aid supplies.
296-78-550 First aid station.
296-78-560 Safe place standards.
296-78-565 Log dumps and ponds-Headmills.
296-78-56501 Log dumps and ponds.
296-78-56503 Log hauls.
296-78-56505 Boats and mechanical devices on water.
296-78-56507 Log decks.
296-78-56509 Mechanical barkers.
296-78-56511 Head rigs and feed works.
296-78-56513 Log carriages.
296-78-570 Band saws-Saws.
296-78-575 Circular saws.
296-78-580 Edgers.
296-78-585 Equalizer saws.
296-78-590 Gang saws and re-saws.
296-78-595 Jump saws.
296-78-600 Trimmer and slasher saws.
296-78-605 Swing saws.
296-78-610 Circular saws, speeds, repairs.
296-78-615 Saw filing and grinding rooms and equipment.
296-78-620 Miscellaneous woodworking machines-Planers, stickers, molders, matchers.
296-78-625 Planers (stave and headings).
296-78-630 Stave croziers.
296-78-635 Jointers.
296-78-640 Jointers (stave and heading).
296-78-645 Wood shapers.
296-78-650 Boring and mortising machines.
296-78-655 Tenoning machines.
296-78-660 Lathe (pail and barrel).
296-78-665 Sanding machines.
296-78-670 Glue machines.
296-78-675 Lath mills.
296-78-680 Veneer and plywood plants-Peeling and barking.
296-78-685 Veneer lathe.
296-78-690 Veneer slicer and cutter.
296-78-695 Veneer clipper.
296-78-700 Veneer wringer (swede).
296-78-705 The shake and shingle industry.
296-78-70501 Definitions-Terms, general.
296-78-70503 Shake and shingle machinery-General.
296-78-70505 Shake machinery.
296-78-70507 Upright shingle machine.
296-78-70509 Related shake and shingle sawing machinery.
296-78-70511 Safety rules.
296-78-710 Construction and isolated equipment.
296-78-71001 General.
296-78-71003 Floor and wall openings.
296-78-71005 Floors, docks, platforms and runways.
296-78-71007 Footwalks and passageways.
296-78-71009 Stairways and ladders.
296-78-71011 Egress and exit.
296-78-71013 Cableways.
296-78-71015 Tanks and chemicals.
296-78-71017 Dry kilns.
296-78-71019 Exhaust systems.
296-78-71021 Spray painting.
296-78-71023 Lighting.
296-78-71025 Gas piping and appliances.
296-78-715 Mechanical, steam and electrical equipment.
296-78-71501 General provisions.
296-78-71503 Lock out-Tag out.
296-78-71505 Mechanical power transmission apparatus.
296-78-720 Boiler and pressure vessels.
296-78-725 Nonionizing radiation.
296-78-730 Electrical service and equipment.
296-78-735 Elevators, moving walks.
296-78-740 Transportation-Lumber handling equipment-Cranes-Construction.
296-78-745 Electrical equipment.
296-78-750 Chains, wire rope, cables and fiber rope.
296-78-755 Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings.
296-78-760 Synthetic web slings.
296-78-765 Floor operated cranes.
296-78-770 Operators.
296-78-775 Signalpersons.
296-78-780 Repairpersons.
296-78-785 Construction requirements.
296-78-790 Crane platforms and footwalks.
296-78-795 Crane cages.
296-78-800 Crane rail stops, bumpers and fenders.
296-78-805 Crawler locomotive and truck cranes.
296-78-810 Chain and electric hoists.
296-78-815 Monorail hoists.
296-78-820 Air hoists.
296-78-825 Jib, pillar, and portable floor cranes, crabs, and winches.
296-78-830 Standard crane hand signals-Illustrations.
296-78-835 Vehicles.
296-78-840 Loading, piling, storage and conveying.
296-78-84001 Loading, piling, storage and conveying-General
296-78-84003 Conveyors.
296-78-84005 Dry kilns.
296-78-84007 Chippers and hogs.
296-78-84009 Bins and bunkers.
296-78-84011 Burners.

 

WAC 296-78-500 Foreword.

(1) General requirements. The chapter 296-78 WAC shall apply to and include safety requirements for all installations where the primary manufacturing of wood building products takes place. The installations may be a permanent fixed establishment or a portable operation. These operations shall include but are not limited to log and lumber handling, sawing, trimming and planing, plywood or veneer manufacturing, canting operations, waste or residual handling, operation of dry kilns, finishing, shipping, storage, yard and yard equipment, and for power tools and affiliated equipment used in connection with such operation. WAC 296-78-450 shall apply to shake and shingle manufacturing. The provisions of WAC 296-78-500 through 296-78-84011 are also applicable in shake and shingle manufacturing except in instances of conflict with the requirements of WAC 296-78-705. (Rev. 1-28-76.)

(2) This standard shall augment the Washington state general safety and health standards, general occupational health standards, electrical workers safety rules, and any other standards which are applicable to all industries governed by chapter 80, Laws of 1973, Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act. In the event of any conflict between any portion of this chapter and any portion of any of the general application standards, the provisions of this chapter 296-78 WAC, shall apply.

(3) In exceptional cases where compliance with specific provisions of this chapter can only be accomplished to the serious detriment and disadvantage of an operation, variance from the requirement may be permitted by the director of the department of Labor & Industries after receipt of application for variance which meets the requirements of chapter 296-900 WAC.

(4) No safety program will run itself. To be successful, the wholehearted interest of the employees' group (labor unions) and management must not only be behind the program, but the fact must also be readily apparent to all.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 07-03-163 (Order 06-30), § 296-78-500, filed 01/24/07, effective 04/01/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-500, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-500, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-505 Definitions applicable to this chapter.

(1) “A-frame” means a structure made of two independent columns fastened together at the top and separated at the bottom for stability.

(2) “Annealing” heating then cooling to soften and render less brittle.

(3) “Binder” a hinged lever assembly used to connect the ends of a wrapper to tighten the wrapper around the load of logs or materials.

(4) “Boom” logs or timbers fastened together end to end and used to contain floating logs. The term includes enclosed logs.

(5) “Brow log” a log placed parallel to a roadway at a landing or dump to protect vehicles while loading or unloading.

(6) “Bunk” a cross support for a load.

(7) “Cant” a log slabbed on one or more sides.

(8) “Carriage” (log carriage) a framework mounted on wheels which runs on tracts or in grooves in a direction parallel to the face of the saw, and which contains apparatus to hold a log securely and advance it toward the saw.

(9) “Carrier” an industrial truck so designed and constructed that it straddles the load to be transported with mechanisms to pick up the load and support it during transportation.

(10) “Chipper” a machine which cuts material into chips.

(11) “Chock,” “bunk block,” and “cheese block” a wedge that prevents logs or loads from moving.

(12) “Cold deck” a pile of logs stored for future removal.

(13) “Crotch lines” two short lines attached to a hoisting line by a ring or shackle, the lower ends being attached to loading hooks.

(14) “Dog” (carriage dog) a steel tooth or assembly of steel teeth, one or more of which are attached to each carriage knee to hold log firmly in place on carriage.

(15) “Drag saw” a power-driven, reciprocating cross-cut saw mounted on suitable frame and used for bucking logs.

(16) “Head block” that part of a carriage which holds the log and upon which it rests. It generally consists of base, knee, taper set, and mechanism.

(17) “Head rig” a combination of head saw and log carriage used for the initial breakdown of logs into timbers, cants, and boards.

(18) “Hog” a machine for cutting or grinding slabs and other coarse residue from the mill.

(19) “Husk” a head saw framework on a circular mill.

(20) “Industrial truck” a mobile, power-driven vehicle used to carry, push or pull material. It is designed for “in-plant” or “on-site” use rather than highway use.

(21) “Kiln tender” the operator of a kiln.

(22) “Lift truck” an industrial truck used for lateral transportation and equipped with a power-operated lifting device, usually in the form of forks, for piling or unpiling lumber units or packages.

(23) “Live rolls” cylinders of wood or metal mounted on horizontal axes and rotated by power, which are used to convey slabs, lumber, and other wood products.

(24) “Loading boom” any structure projecting from a pivot point and intended to be used for lifting and guiding loads for the purpose of loading or unloading.

(25) “Log” a portion of a tree, usually a minimum of twelve feet in length, capable of being further processed into a variety of wood products.

(26) “Log deck” a platform in the sawmill on which the logs remain until needed for sawing.

(27) “Log haul” a conveyor for transferring logs to mill.

(28) “Lumber dimensions” the nominal size of surfaced lumber, unless otherwise stated.

(29) “Lumber hauling truck” an industrial truck, other than a lift truck or a carrier, used for the transport of lumber.

(30) “Package” a unit of lumber.

(31) “Peavy” a stout wooden handle fitted with a spike and hook and used for rolling logs.

(32) “Peeler block” a portion of a tree usually bucked in two foot intervals plus trim, to be peeled in a lathe or sliced in a slicer into veneer for further processing into plywood.

(33) “Pike pole” a long pole whose end is shod with a sharp pointed spike.

(34) “Pitman rod” connecting rod.

(35) “Resaw” band, circular, or sash gang saws used to break down slabs, cants, or flitches into lumber.

(36) “Running line” any moving rope as distinguished from a stationary rope such as a guyline.

(37) “Safety factor” a calculated reduction factor which may be applied to laboratory test values to obtain safe working stresses for wooden beams and other mechanical members; ratio of breaking load to safe load.

(38) “Saw guide” a device for steadying a circular or bandsaw.

(39) “Setwork” a mechanism on a sawmill carriage which enables an operator to move the log into position for another cut.

(40) “Sorting gaps” the areas on a log pond enclosed by boom sticks into which logs are sorted.

(41) “Spreader wheel” a metal wheel that separates the board from the log in back of circular saws to prevent binding.

(42) “Splitter” a knife-type, nonrotating spreader.

(43) “Sticker” a strip of wood or other material used to separate layers of lumber.

(44) “Stiff boom” the anchored, stationary boom sticks which are tied together and on which boom persons work.

(45) “Swifter” is a tying of boom sticks together to prevent them from spreading while being towed.

(46) “Telltale” a device used to serve as a warning for overhead objects.

(47) “Top saw” the upper of two circular saws on a head rig, both being on the same husk.

(48) “Tramway” a way for trams, usually consisting of parallel tracks laid on wooden beams.

(49) “Trestle” a braced framework of timbers, piles or steelwork for carrying a road or railroad over a depression.

(50) “Wrapper” a chain, strap or wire rope assembly used to contain a load of logs or materials.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-505, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-510 Education and first-aid standards. 

It shall be the duty of every employer to comply with such standards and systems of education for safety as shall be, from time to time, prescribed for such employer by the director of Labor & Industries through the division of industrial safety and health or by statute.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-510, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-515 Management's responsibility.

(1) It shall be the responsibility of management to establish, supervise, and enforce, in a manner which is effective in practice:

(a) A safe and healthful working environment.

(b) An accident prevention program as required by these standards.

(c) Training programs to improve the skill and competency of all employees in the field of occupational safety and health. Such training shall include the on-the-job instructions on the safe use of powered materials handling equipment, machine tool operations, use of toxic materials and operation of utility systems prior to assignments to jobs involving such exposures.

(2) The employer shall develop and maintain a chemical hazard communication program as required by WAC 296-800-170, which will provide information to all employees relative to hazardous chemicals or substances to which they are exposed, or may become exposed, in the course of their employment.

(3) Management shall not assign mechanics, millwrights, or other persons to work on equipment by themselves when there is a probability that the person could fall from elevated work locations or equipment or that a person could be pinned down by heavy parts or equipment so that they could not call for or obtain assistance if the need arises.

Note: This subsection does not apply to operators of motor vehicles, watchperson or certain other jobs which, by their nature, are singular employee assignments. However, a definite procedure for checking the welfare of all employees during their working hours shall be instituted and all employees so advised.

(4) After the emergency actions following accidents that cause serious injuries that have immediate symptoms, a preliminary investigation of the cause of the accident shall be conducted. The investigation shall be conducted by a person designated by the employer, the immediate supervisor of the injured employee, witnesses, employee representative if available and any other person with the special expertise required to evaluate the facts relating to the cause of the accident. The findings of the investigation shall be documented by the employer for reference at any following formal investigation.

(5) Reporting of fatality or hospitalization incidents.

(a) Within eight hours after the fatality or probable fatality of any employee from a work-related incident or the inpatient hospitalization of any employee as a result of a work-related incident, the employer of any employees so affected shall report the fatality/hospitalization by telephone or in person, to the nearest office of the department or by using the OSHA toll-free central telephone number, 1-800-321-6742.

(i) This requirement applies to each such fatality or hospitalization occurs within thirty days of the incident.

(ii) Exception: If any employer does not learn of a reportable incident at the time it occurs and the incident would otherwise be reportable under this subsection, the employer shall make a report within eight hours of the time the incident is reported to any agent or employee of the employer.

(iii) Each report required by this subsection shall relate the following information: Establishment name, location of the incident, time of the incident, number of fatalities or hospitalized employees, contact person, phone number, and a brief description of the incident.

(b) Equipment involved in an incident resulting in an immediate or probable fatality or in the in-patient hospitalization of any employee, shall not be moved, until a representative of the department investigates the incident and releases such equipment, except where removal is essential to prevent further incident. Where necessary to remove the victim, such equipment may be moved only to the extent of making possible such removal.

(c) Upon arrival of a department investigator, employer shall assign to assist the investigator, the immediate supervisor and all employees who were witnesses to the incident, or whoever the investigator deems necessary to complete the investigation.

(6) A system for maintaining records of occupational injuries and illnesses as prescribed by chapter 296-27 WAC.

Note: Recordable cases include:

(a) Every occupational death.

(b) Every industrial illness.

Every occupational injury that involves one of the following:

(i) Unconsciousness.

(ii) Inability to perform all phases of regular job.

(iii) Inability to work full time on regular job.

(iv) Temporary assignment to another job.

(v) Medical treatment beyond first aid.

All employers with eleven or more employees shall record occupational injury and illness information on forms OSHA 101 - supplementary record occupational injuries and illnesses and OSHA 200 - log and summary. Forms other than OSHA 101 may be substituted for the supplementary record of occupational injuries and illnesses if they contain the same items.

(7) Personal protective equipment required by this standard shall be provided at no cost to employees.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 09-05-071 (Order 08-35), §296-78-515, filed 02/19/09, effective 04/01/09. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 08-05-012 (Order 07-44), § 296-78-515, filed 02/08/08, effective 04/01/08. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-515, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), 296-78-515, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-78-515, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-78-515, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-515, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-520 Employee's responsibility.

(1) Employees shall coordinate and cooperate with all other employees in an attempt to eliminate accidents.

(2) Employees shall study and observe all safe practices governing their work.

(3) Employees should offer safety suggestions, wherein such suggestions may contribute to a safer work environment.

(4) Employees shall apply the principles of accident prevention in their daily work and shall use proper safety devices and protective equipment as required by their employment or employer.

(5) Employees shall properly care for all personal protective equipment.

(6) Employees shall make a prompt report to their immediate supervisor, of each industrial injury or occupational illness, regardless of the degree of severity.

(7) Employees shall not wear torn or loose clothing while working around machinery.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-520, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-525 Accident-prevention programs. 

Each employer shall develop a formal accident-prevention program, tailored to the needs of the particular plant or operation and to the type of hazards involved. The department may be contacted for assistance in developing appropriate programs.

(1) The following are the minimal program elements for all employers:

(a) A safety orientation program describing the employer's safety program and including:

(i) How and when to report injuries, including instruction as to the location of first-aid facilities.

(ii) How to report unsafe conditions and practices.

(iii) The use and care of required personal protective equipment.

(iv) The proper actions to take in event of emergencies including the routes of exiting from areas during emergencies.

(v) Identification of the hazardous gases, chemicals or materials involved along with the instructions on the safe use and emergency action following accidental exposure.

(vi) A description of the employers total safety program.

(vii) An on-the-job review of the practices necessary to perform the initial job assignments in a safe manner.

(b) A designated safety and health committee consisting of management and employee representatives with the employee representatives being elected or appointed by fellow employees.

(2) Each accident-prevention program shall be outlined in written format.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), 296-78-525, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-525, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-530 Safety and health committee plan.

(1) All employers of eleven or more employees, shall have a designated safety committee composed of employer and employee elected members.

(a) The terms of employee-elected members shall be a maximum of one year. Should a vacancy occur on the committee, a new member shall be elected prior to the next scheduled meeting.

(b) The number of employer-selected members shall not exceed the number of employee-elected members.

(2) The safety committee shall have an elected chairperson.

(3) The safety committee shall be responsible for determining the frequency of committee meetings.

Note: If the committee vote on the frequency of safety meetings is stalemated, the division's regional safety educational representative may be consulted for recommendations.

(a) The committee shall be responsible for determining the date, hour and location of the meetings.

(b) The length of each meeting shall not exceed one hour except by majority vote of the committee.

(4) Minutes of each committee meeting shall be prepared and filed for a period of at least one year and shall be made available for review by noncompliance personnel of the division of industrial safety and health.

(5) Safety and health committee meetings shall address the following:

(a) A review of the safety and health inspection reports to assist in correction of identified unsafe conditions or practices.

(b) An evaluation of the accident investigations conducted since the last meeting to determine if the cause of the unsafe acts or unsafe conditions involved was properly identified and corrected.

(c) An evaluation of the accident or illness prevention program with the discussion of recommendation for improvement where indicated.

(d) The attendance shall be documented.

(e) The subject(s) discussed shall be documented.

(6) All employers of ten or less employees and employers of eleven or more employees where the employees are segregated on different shifts or in widely dispersed locations in crews of ten or less employees, may elect to have foreman-crew meetings in lieu of a safety and health committee plan provided:

(a) Foreman-crew safety meetings be held at least once a month, however, if conditions require, weekly or semimonthly meetings shall be held to discuss safety problems as they arise.

(b) All items under subsection (5) of this section shall be covered.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-530, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-535 Safety bulletin board. 

There shall be installed and maintained in every fixed establishment, a safety bulletin board sufficient in size to display and post safety bulletins, newsletters, posters, accident statistics and other safety educational material. It is recommended that safety bulletin boards be painted green and white. 

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-535, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-540 First-aid training and certification. 

The employer must ensure that first-aid trained personnel are available to help employees who are injured or who become acutely ill on the job. The employer must meet this requirement by maintaining first-aid trained staff on the job site. The employer must ensure that:

(1) Each person in charge of employees has first-aid training; or another person with first-aid training is present or available to the employees. Such training must be successfully completed every two years;

(2) Documentation of first-aid training is kept;

(3) Emergency telephone numbers are adequately posted.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. 04-07-160 (Order 03-31), § 296-78-540, filed 3/23/04, effective 5/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-540, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 00-01-038 (Order 99-08), 296-78-540, filed 12/07/99, effective 02/01/2000. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-540, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-545 First-aid supplies. 

The first-aid kits and supplies requirements of WAC 296-800-150 apply within the scope of chapter 296-78 WAC.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-545, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 00-01-038 (Order 99-08), 296-78-545, filed 12/07/99, effective 02/01/2000. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-545, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-550 First-aid station. 

Employers with fifty or more employees per shift at one location must establish a first-aid station in accordance with the requirements in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part A-1.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 00-01-038 (Order 99-08), 296-78-550, filed 12/07/99, effective 02/01/2000. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-550, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-560 Safe place standards.

(1) Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees a place of employment free from recognized hazards that are causing or likely to cause serious injury or death to his employees.

(2) Every employer shall furnish and use safety devices and safeguards, and shall adopt and use practices, means, methods, operations, and processes which are reasonably adequate to render such employment and place of employment safe. Every employer shall do every other thing reasonably necessary to protect the life and safety of employees.

(3) No employer shall require any employee to go or be in any employment or place of employment which is not safe.

(4) No employer shall fail or neglect:

(a) To provide and use safety devices and safeguards.

(b) To adopt and use methods and processes reasonably adequate to render the employment and place of employment safe.

(c) To do every other thing reasonably necessary to protect the life and safety of employees.

(5) No employer, owner, or lessee of any real property shall construct or cause to be constructed any place of employment that is not safe.

(6) No person shall do any of the following:

(a) Remove, displace, damage, destroy or carry off any safety device, safeguard, notice, or warning, furnished for use in any employment or place of employment.

(b) Interfere in any way with the use thereof by any other person.

(c) Interfere with the use of any method or process adopted for the protection of any employee, including himself, in such employment, or place of employment.

(d) Fail or neglect to do every other thing reasonably necessary to protect the life and safety of employees.

(e) Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around work sites. Workers under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be permitted on the work site. This rule does not apply to persons taking prescription drugs and or narcotics as directed by a physician providing such use shall not endanger the worker or others.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-560, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-565 Log dumps and ponds--Headmills.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-565, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-56501 Log dumps and ponds.

(1) Log dumps, booms, ponds or storage areas, if used at night, shall be illuminated in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-800-210, safety and health core rules.

(2) A log dump shall be constructed at each log pond or decking ground. Log trucks shall not be unloaded by use of peavies or by hand.

(a) The roadbed shall be of hard packed gravel, heavy planking or equivalent material and shall be maintained at all times. Roadbeds at log dumps shall be of width and evenness to insure safe operation of equipment.

(b) A mechanical unloading device shall be provided and used for unloading logs. Log unloading areas shall be arranged and maintained to provide a safe working area.

(c) Signs prohibiting unauthorized foot or vehicle traffic in log unloading and storage areas shall be posted.

(d) At no time shall one person be permitted to work alone on a log dump, a booming or rafting grounds, or a log pond.

(3) Water log dumps. Ungrounded electrically powered hoists using handheld remote control in grounded locations, such as log dumps or mill log lifts, shall be actuated by circuits operating at less than 50 volts to ground.

(4) (a) A brow log, skid timbers or the equivalent shall be installed on all log dumps.

(b) Where logs are unloaded onto skids, sufficient space shall be provided between the top of the skids and the ground to accommodate the body of a person.

(c) All truck dumps shall be built with not more than six inches variation of level from side to side.

(5) (a) All truck log dumps shall be equipped with a positive safeguard to prevent logs from leaving the load on the side opposite the brow log. Jill pokes shall not be used on truck log dumps.

(b) Unloading lines shall be attached and tightened or other positive safeguard in place before binder chains are released at any log dump.

(c) Stakes and chocks which trip shall be constructed in such manner that the tripping mechanism that releases the stake or chocks is activated at the opposite side of the load being tripped.

(d) Binders shall be released only from the side on which the unloader operates, except when released by remote control devices or except when person making release is protected by racks or stanchions or other equivalent means.

(e) Loads on which a binder is fouled by the unloading machine shall have an extra binder or metal band of equal strength placed around the load, or the load shall be otherwise secured so that the fouled binder can be safely removed.

(f) Unloading lines, crotch lines, or equally effective means shall be arranged and used in a manner to minimize the possibility of any log swinging or rolling back.

(6) (a) In unloading operations, the operator of unloading machine shall have an unobstructed view of the vehicle and the logs being unloaded.

(b) Unloading lines shall be arranged so that it is not necessary for the employees to attach them from the pond or dump site of the load except when entire loads are lifted from the log-transporting vehicle.

(7) All log dumps shall be kept reasonably free of bark and other debris.

(8) Employees shall remain in the clear until all moving equipment has come to a complete stop.

(9) Artificial log ponds subject to unhealthy stagnation shall be drained, cleansed, and water changed at least once every six months.

(10) All employees whose regular work requires walking on logs shall wear spiked or calked shoes, except when working in snow.

(11) Employees whose duties require them to work from boats, floating logs, boom sticks, or walkways along or on water must be provided with and must wear appropriate buoyand devices while performing such duties.

(a) Employees are not considered exposed to the danger of drowning:

(i) When working behind standard height and strength guardrails;

(ii) When working inside operating cabs or stations which eliminate the possibility of accidentally falling into the water;

(iii) When wearing approved safety belts with lifeline attached so as to preclude the possibility of falling into the water;

(b) Prior to and after each use, personal floating devices shall be inspected for defects which would reduce their designed effectiveness. Defective personal flotation devices shall not be used.

(c) To meet the approved criteria required by this subsection (11), a personal flotation device shall be approved by the United States Coast Guard as a Type I PFD, Type II PFD, Type III PFD, or Type V PFD, or their equivalent, pursuant to 46 CFR 160 (Coast Guard lifesaving equipment specifications) and 33 CFR 175.23 (Coast Guard table of devices equivalent to personal flotation devices). Ski belt or inflatable type personal flotation devices are specifically prohibited.

(12) (a) Wooden pike poles shall be of continuous, straight grained No. 1 material. Defective poles, blunt or dull pikes shall not be used.

(b) Aluminum or other metal poles shall not be used where hazard of coming in contact with live electric wires exists.

(13) (a) Walkways and floats shall be provided and security anchored to provide safe passage for workers.

(b) Permanent cable swifters shall be so arranged that it will not be necessary to roll boom sticks in order to attach or detach them.

(c) Inspection of cable or dogging lines shall be made as necessary to determine when repair or removal from service is necessary.

(14) (a) Decks of floats or other walkways shall be kept above the waterline at all times and shall be capable of supporting four times the load to be imposed.

(b) Floating donkeys or other power-driven machinery used on booms shall be placed on a raft or float with enough buoyancy to keep the deck above water.

(15) (a) All regular boom sticks and foot logs shall be reasonably straight, have all protruding knots and bark removed, and shall be capable of supporting above the waterline at either end, any necessary weight of workers and equipment.

(b) Stiff booms shall be two float logs wide secured by boom chains or other connecting devices, and of a width adequate for the working needs. Walking surfaces shall be free of loose material and maintained in good repair.

(c) Boom sticks shall be fastened together with crossties or couplings.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-56501, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-78-56501, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-56501, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-56503 Log hauls.

(1) Every log haul used as a walkway shall have at least one walkway with standard railing to enable workers to stand clear of the logs in the chute. Cleats shall be installed to provide safe footing on sloping walkways.

(2) Workers shall not stand under or dangerously near to logs that are being hoisted vertically to the log deck.

(3) (a) Log haul gears and bull chain drive mechanism shall be adequately guarded for the protection of employees.

(b) Log haul bull chains or cable shall be designed, installed, and maintained to provide a 4 to 1 safety factor for the intended load.

(c) Troughs for the return strand of log haul chains shall be provided over passageways.

(d) Overhead protection shall be provided for employees working below logs being moved to the log deck.

(4) Log haul controls shall be arranged to operate from a position where the operator will at all times be in the clear of logs, machinery lines and rigging. Such controls shall operate mechanism only when moved toward the log slip or deck.

(5) Where possible an automatic stop shall be installed on all log hauls. A positive stop shall be installed on all log hauls to prevent logs from traveling too far ahead in the mill.

(6) (a) Slip persons shall handle pike poles in such manner as to be in the clear in case of a slip back.

(b) All sorting gaps shall have a stiff boom on each side.

(c) The banks of the log pond in the vicinity of the log haul shall be reinforced to prevent caving in.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-56503, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-56505 Boats and mechanical devices on waters.

(1) The applicable provisions of the Standard for Fire Protection for Motorcraft, NFPA No. 302-1994, shall be complied with. Prior to starting the boat motor, any spilled fuel shall be removed and vapors shall be exhausted from any area in which they may accumulate.

(2) The bilge area shall be kept clean and oil, grease, fuel, or highly combustible materials shall not be allowed to accumulate.

(3) Adequate ventilation equipment shall be provided and used for the bilge area to prevent the accumulation of toxic or explosive gases or vapors.

(4) Adequate ventilation equipment shall be provided and used for the cabin area on enclosed cabin-type boats to prevent an accumulation of harmful gases or vapors.

(5) Deck and cabin lighting shall be provided and used where necessary to provide safe levels of illumination aboard boats. Boats operated during the period from sunset to sunrise, or in conditions of restricted visibility, shall display navigation lights as required by the United States Coast Guard. Searchlights or floodlights shall be provided to facilitate safe navigation and to illuminate working or boarding areas adjacent to the craft.

(6) Decks of pond boats shall be covered with nonslip material. On craft used by workers wearing calked shoes, all areas where the operator or workers must stand or walk shall be made of or be covered with wood or other suitable matting or nonslip material and such covering shall be maintained in good condition.

(7) Each boat shall be provided with a fire extinguisher and life ring with at least fifty feet of one-fourth inch line attached.

Note: For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.

(8) (a) Along docks, walkways, or other fixed installations on or adjacent to open water more than five feet deep, approved life rings with at least ninety feet of one-fourth inch line attached, shall be provided. The life rings shall be spaced at intervals not to exceed two hundred feet and shall be kept in easily visible and readily accessible locations.

(b) When employees are assigned work at other casual locations where exposure to drowning exists, at least one approved life ring with at least ninety feet of line attached, shall be provided in the immediate vicinity of the work assigned.

(c) When work is assigned over water where the vertical drop from the accidental fall would exceed fifty feet, special arrangements shall be made with and approved by the department of Labor & Industries prior to such assignment.

(d) Lines attached to life rings on fixed locations shall be at least ninety feet in length, at least one-fourth inch in diameter, and have a minimum breaking strength of five hundred pounds. Similar lines attached to life rings on boats shall be at least fifty feet in length.

(e) Life rings must be United States Coast Guard approved thirty-inch size.

(f) Life rings and attached lines shall be provided and maintained to retain their buoyancy and strength.

(g) Log broncs, boomscooters, and boomboats shall not be loaded with personnel or equipment so as to adversely affect their stability or seaworthiness.

(h) Boats shall not be operated at an excessive speed or handled recklessly.

(i) Boat fuel shall be transported and stored in approved containers. Refer to WAC 296-24-58501(19) for definition of approved.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.060. 03-06-076 (Order 02-33), § 296-78-56505, filed 03/04/03, effective 08/01/03. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-56505, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96; 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), 296-78-56505, filed 11/14/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-56505, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-56507 Log decks.

(1) Dry deck storage.

(a) Dry deck storage areas shall be kept orderly and shall be maintained in a condition which is conducive to safe operation of mobile equipment.

(b) Logs shall be stored in stabilized piles, and roadways and traffic lanes shall be maintained at a width adequate for safe travel of log handling equipment.

(c) Logs shall be arranged to minimize the chance of accidentally rolling from the deck.

(2) (a) Employees shall not spool cable on winch or drums with their hands.

(b) Log wells shall be provided with safeguard to prevent logs from rolling back into well off log deck.

(3) Jump skids on log decks shall be installed in grooves in a manner that they cannot work out onto the carriage way.

(4) (a) Log decks shall be provided with effective means to prevent logs from accidentally rolling down the deck onto the carriage or its runway.

(b) Swing saws. Swing saws on log decks shall be equipped with a barricade and stops for protection of employees who may be on the opposite side of the log haul chute.

(c) Drag saws. Where reciprocating log cutoff saws (drag saws) are provided, they shall not project into walkway or aisle.

(d) Circular cutoff saws. Circular log bucking or cutoff saws shall be so located and guarded as to allow safe entrance to and exit from the building.

(e) Entrance doorway. Where the cutoff saw partially blocks the entrance from the log haul runway the entrance shall be guarded.

(5) A barricade or other positive stop shall be erected between the sawyer's stand and the log deck to protect the sawyer from rolling logs. Such barricade or stop shall be of sufficient strength to stop any log.

(6) Chains from overhead canting gear or other equipment shall not be allowed to hang over the log deck in such manner as to endanger workers.

(7) Canting gear control levers shall be so arranged that they move away from the carriage to operate.

(8) Moving parts or equipment on or about log decks shall be guarded.

(9) Peavies, canthooks and other hand tools shall be kept in good repair at all times.

(10) Workers shall not go below logs on decks that are likely to roll or be rolled. Means of access shall be provided to the head rig which does not subject employees to the hazard of moving logs or equipment.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-56507, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-56509 Mechanical barkers.

(1) Rotary barkers. Rotary barking devices shall be so guarded as to protect employees from flying chips, bark, or other extraneous material.

(2) Elevating ramp. If an elevating ramp or gate is used, it shall be provided with a safety chain, hook, or other means of suspension while employees are underneath.

(3) Area around barkers. The hazardous area around ring barkers and their conveyors shall be fenced off or posted as a prohibited area for unauthorized persons.

(4) Enclosing hydraulic barkers. Hydraulic barkers shall be enclosed with strong baffles at the inlet and outlet. The operator shall be protected by adequate safety glass or equivalent.

(5) Holddown rolls. Holddown rolls shall be installed at the infeed and outfeed sections of mechanical ring barkers to control the movement of logs.

(6) If such holddown rolls have a tendency to throw logs or chunks, horseshoe or equivalent type guards shall be installed to contain the logs or chunks.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-56509, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-56511 Head rigs and feed works.

(1) A clear walkway shall be provided along the upper side of the log deck and around the head rig unless an overhead walkway is provided.

(2) The sawyer shall be primarily responsible for the safety of the carriage crew and off-bearers. He shall exercise due care in the operation of the carriage and log turning devices.

(3) Feedworks and log turning control levers shall be so arranged that they may be securely locked when not in use and shall be guarded against accidental contact.

(4) (a) A positive means shall be provided to prevent unintended movement of the carriage. This shall involve a control locking device, a carriage tie-down, or both.

(b) An emergency control or equally effective means shall be provided so that the sawyer may stop the head rig section of the mill without leaving the operator station.

(5) An effective method of disengaging the head rig saws from the power unit shall be installed on all head rigs where the power unit is not directly controlled by the sawyer. The saws shall be disengaged from the source of power while repairs or changes are made.

(6) A shield of lexan, makrolon, merlon, plestar, or equivalent transparent material, shall be installed between the sawyer's stand and the head saws in all circular mills. In band mills and chipper type installations, a wire screen of not less than twelve gauge wire, one-half inch mesh, mounted in a frame in compliance with chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety, is an acceptable substitute for the type shield required in circular mills.

(7) Safety glasses, safety shields or other suitable eye protection shall be provided for and use by head rig off-bearers.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-78-56511, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-56511, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-56513 Log carriages.

(1) Carriages upon which employees are required to work shall be solidly decked over.

(2) Dogs. Dogging devices shall be adequate to secure logs, cants, or boards, during sawing operations.

(3) The feed control lever of friction or belt driven carriage feed works shall be arranged to operate away from the saws or carriage track.

(4) A quick action valve, controlled from the sawyer's stand, shall be located in the steam line to any steam operated feed works. The valve shall be tested daily.

(5) Valves in steam feeds shall be closed and locked in a neutral position before the sawyer leaves his station. Leaking steam valves or piping shall not be used on carriage drives.

(6) (a) Where employees ride the headrig carriage, clearance of the rear edge of the carriage shall be either not more than two inches or shall be not less than thirty inches from the side wall of the building. The side wall shall be boarded over smoothly to height of not less than six feet six inches from the setter's platform and for at least the length of the carriage travel. Where the clearance is thirty inches or more the floor between the back side of the setter's platform and the wall shall be raised to the level of the platform. The clearance between the floor edge and the platform shall not be more than two inches.

(b) Barriers and warning signs. A barrier shall be provided to prevent employees from entering the space necessary for travel of the carriage, with headblocks fully receded, for the full length and extreme ends of carriage runways. Warning signs shall be posted at possible entry points to this area.

(7) Safe access to the head rig shall be provided.

(8) No roof truss or roof timber or other obstruction shall be located within six feet six inches of the upper surface of the setter's platform on any carriage.

(9) Doors which lead onto a passageway at the end or side of the carriage runway shall be provided with a handrail opposite such doorway. Handrail shall not be less than eighteen inches from the carriage run. A warning sign shall be posted on the entrance side of such doorways.

(10) A stop or bumper capable of stopping the loaded carriage at operating speed shall be installed at each end of the carriage run.

(11) Rail sweeps shall be installed in front of the front wheels in the direction of travel. Such sweeps shall extend to within one-fourth inch of the rail.

(12) Where power operated log turners are used, carriage knees shall be provided with goosenecks or other means of protecting the carriage crew from climbing logs.

(13) Employees shall use a stick or wire brush to clear head blocks of debris.

(14) All weakened or broken carriage boards which will not support the load to be imposed with a safety factor of 4, shall be immediately replaced.

(15) Carriage control. A positive means shall be provided to prevent unintended movement of the carriage. This may involve a control locking device, a carriage tie-down, or both.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-56513, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-56513, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-570 Band saws--Saws.

(1) Band head rigs shall be given a thorough daily inspection and any deficiency reported and corrected.

(2) Any band saw found to have developed a crack greater than one-tenth the width of the saw shall be removed from service until the width of the saw is reduced to eliminate the crack, the cracked section is removed, or the development of the crack is arrested by welding.

(3) Band saws shall not be continued in use of the head rig for which they have been designed after they have been reduced forty percent in width.

(4) Leather gloves, or equivalent hand protection, shall be worn by employees while changing band saws.

(5) All head band saw wheels shall have a minimum rim thickness of five-eighths inch, except for a distance of not to exceed one inch from the front edge of the wheel.

(6) Provisions shall be made for alerting and warning employees before starting band head saws, and measures shall be taken to insure that all persons are in the clear.

(7) No band saw shall be run at a peripheral speed in excess of that recommended by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's recommended maximum speed shall be stamped in plainly legible figures on some portion of the assembly.

(8) A band wheel that has developed a crack in the rim shall be immediately removed from service. If a crack has developed in a spoke the wheel shall be removed from service until repaired.

(9) All band wheels shall be completely encased or guarded on both sides. The exposed part of the saw blade on the uptravel between the two wheels shall be encased, and no portion of the blade exposed, except such part of the cutting edge as is essential for sawing the material at hand.

(10) All band wheel guards shall be constructed of not less than ten U.S. gauge metal, or not less than two inch wood material or equivalent, attached to the frames. Ventilating ports shall not exceed 2 x 4 inches in size. Openings necessary for lubrication or repair of the saw shall have doors or gates of equivalent strength to the remainder of the guard, and such doors or gates shall be securely closed during operation.

(11) Every band mill shall be equipped with a saw catcher, rest or guard of substantial construction.

(12) All band saws other than head mills shall be enclosed or guarded except the working side of the blade between the guide and the table. The guard for the portion of the saw between the sliding guide and the upper saw wheel guard shall be adjusted with the guide.

(13) Each gang ripper of band or straight saw type shall have the cutting edges of the saw guarded by a hood or screen secured to the framework of the machine.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-570, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-570, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-575 Circular saws.

(1) Single circular head saws. Circular head saws shall not be operated at speeds in excess of those specified by the manufacturer. Maximum speed shall be etched on the saw.

(2) On all circular saw mills the horizontal distance from the side of the saw to the nearest post of the husk or frame shall be at least one inch greater than the clear vertical distance between the collars of the top and bottom saws.

(3) Circular head saws shall be equipped with safety guides that can be readily adjusted without use of wrench or other hand tools. Brackets or edging supports shall be installed between the saw and the side of the husk.

(4) The upper saw of a double circular mill shall be provided with a hood or guard. A screen or other suitable device shall be placed so as to protect the sawyer from flying particles.

(5) All circular sawmills where live rolls are not used behind the head saw shall be equipped with an effective spreader or splitter. In any mill where the head saw is used for edging lumber, the splitter shall be solid and stationary and shall extend above the head blocks.

(6) Drag saws or circular cut-off saws shall be so arranged that they will not project into any passageway. When existing installations do not leave clear passage, saws shall be fenced off in order to make it impossible for anyone to walk into them. Means to securely hold material being sawed shall be provided wherever such material creates a hazard.

(7) All employees shall be in the clear before starting operation of drag or swing cut-off saws.

(8) Twin circular head saws. Twin circular head saw rigs such as scrag saws, shall meet the specifications for single circular head saws in subsection (1) of this section, where applicable.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-575, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-580 Edgers.

(1) Edgers shall be guarded by a metal housing of ten gauge sheet metal, ten gauge by one-half inch mesh wire, screen, or by a baffle of not less than two inch wood material.

(2) Openings in end frames shall be enclosed with sheet metal, wire screen or wood and may be hinged or arranged to permit oiling and removal of saws.

(3) The top of the edger shall be guarded to prevent contact by employees or debris being thrown and all chains and gears fully enclosed as required by WAC 296-78-710 of this chapter.

(4) Vertical arbor edgers installed ahead of the main saw shall be so located and guarded that an employee cannot contact any part of the edger saws from his normal operating position.

(5) Edgers shall not be located in the main roll case behind the head saw.

(6) All edgers shall be equipped with pressure feed rolls. The controls shall be installed and located so that from the normal work station the operator can quickly stop the infeed drive without releasing the hold down tension of the pressure rolls.

(7) All edgers shall be provided with a method of preventing or guarding against kickbacks. Finger units or dogs installed at the edger, or hinged steel plates suspended across the feed table may be used for this purpose. A kickback barricade, in line with the edger, if fenced off may be used.

(8) Pressure and feed rolls on edgers shall be guarded against accidental contact by means of roll covers, bars or strips. The pressure rolls shall not be lifted while stock is being run, or while any person is in line with the feed side of the saws.

(9) Edger men shall not raise feed rolls and reach between saws while edger is in operation.

(10) Edger men shall not put hands on cants being run through the edger.

(11) Live rolls and rotating powered tailing devices in back of edger shall operate at a speed not less than the speed of the edger feed rolls.

(12) Tables in back of edgers shall be kept clear of cants, edgings and unnecessary debris.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-580, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-580, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-585 Equalizer saws.

(1) Equalizer saws for bolts, staves, heading, etc., shall have the saws encased, except that portion immediately adjacent to the feeding device.

(2) Feeding devices on all such equipment shall be provided with guards to prevent contact with the feeding device by employees.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-585, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-590 Gang saws and re-saws.

(1) Gang saws and re-saws shall be fully guarded or housed in accordance with conditions. Cranks, pitman rods, and other moving parts shall be guarded.

(2) Feed rolls shall be enclosed by a cover over the top, front, and open ends except where guarded by location. Drive mechanism to feed rolls shall be enclosed.

(3) Feed rolls shall be enclosed and if the operator stands within thirty inches of the feed rolls, they shall be so guarded as to prevent operator coming into contact with them.

(4) Circular re-saws or rip saws, except power feed rip saws with a roller or wheel back of the saw, shall be provided with splitters or spreaders.

(5) A hood of metal or wood of sufficient strength to give protection against splinters or flying teeth shall be provided over all circular rip saws.

(6) That portion of the saw extending below the table shall be so guarded as to prevent contact.

(7) Circular rip saws shall be equipped with a standard anti-kickback device.

(8) Carriage cradles of whole-log sash gang saws, Swedish gangs shall be of height to prevent logs from kicking out while being loaded.

(9) Band re-saws. Band re-saws shall meet the specifications for band head saws as required in WAC 296-78-570(7).

(10) Circular gang re-saws.

(a) Banks of circular gang re-saws shall be guarded by a hood to contain teeth or debris which can be thrown by the saws.

(b) Circular gang re-saws shall be provided with safety fingers or other anti-kickback devices.

(c) Circular gang re-saws shall not be operated at speeds exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.

(d) Feed belts and drive pulleys shall be guarded in accordance with chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

(e) Each circular gang re-saw, except self-feed saws with a live roll or wheel at back of saw, shall be provided with spreaders.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-78-590, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-590, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-595 Jump saws.

(1) Jump saws shall have guards below the top of the table or roll case. A guard shall be placed over the roll casing to prevent persons from walking into or over the saw.

(2) Jump saws, underhung swing saws, or bed trimmers shall be so arranged that the saws are fully enclosed when not in actual use.

(3) A positive stop shall be installed to prevent the saw from passing the front edge of the roll case or table. The throat in the table or roll case shall be only wide enough to permit unobstructed operation of the saw.

(4) Guards constructed of not less than two inch wood material or of heavy wire mesh mounted in a steel frame shall be placed in front of jump saw trimmers. Stops shall be installed to prevent timber from being thrown off the roll case.

(5) Foot treadle operated saws shall be provided with safeguards to prevent accidental contact.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-595, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-600 Trimmer and slasher saws.

(1) Trimmer of [and] slasher saws shall be guarded in front by a flat or round steel framework with a rigid metal screen or light iron bars attached thereto, or by wood baffles of not less than two inch wood material securely bolted to the frame.

Maximum speed. Trimmer saws shall not be run at peripheral speeds in excess of those recommended by the manufacturer.

(2) Front guards for a series of saws shall be set as close to the top of the feed table as is practical when considering the type of machine in use and the material being cut. The end saws of a series shall be guarded or fenced off.

(3) The rear of a series of saws shall have a stationary or swinging guard of not less than two inch wood material or equivalent the full width of the saws and as much wider as is necessary to protect persons at the rear of the trimmer.

(4) Safety stops. Automatic trimmer saws shall be provided with safety stops or hangers to prevent saws from dropping on table.

(5) Feed chains shall be stopped while employees are on the feed table.

(6) Spotters for trimmers or slashers shall be provided with goggles or other eye protection when conditions so warrant.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-600, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-605 Swing saws.

(1) Manually operated swing cut-off saws of the following types shall be set up, guarded and operated in accordance with chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety:

  • Saws into which materials to be cut are fed or positioned and/or held in position by hand pressure during the cutting stroke; and/or

  • Saws on which the cutting stroke is propelled by hand pressure; and/or

  • Saws on which the operator is within arm's reach of the blade when the operator is standing at the operator's control station and the blade is fully extended to the limit of operating travel.

(2) Operators of hand operated swing saws shall not stand directly in front of saw while making a cut.

(3) Swing cut-off saws which are fed by powered live rolls, conveyor chains and/or belts and which are operated from a remote operator's station (defined as being beyond arm's reach of the blade when the blade is fully extended to the limit of operating travel) shall be set up, guarded and operated in accordance with the following:

(a) Overhead swing cut-off saws shall be guarded by a hood which shall cover the upper half of the cutting edge at least to the depth of the teeth.

(b) The driving belts on overhead swing cut-off saws, where exposed to contact, shall be provided with guards as required by WAC 296-78-71505.

(c) Saws shall be completely enclosed when in idle position.

(d) Power operated swing saws shall have controls so arranged that the operators will not stand directly in front of saw when making cut.

(e) All swing saws shall be equipped with a counter balance which shall be permanently fastened to the frame of the saw and so arranged or adjusted that it will return the saw beyond the rear edge of the table or roll case without a rebounding motion. Wire rope, chain or nonmetallic rope running to a weight over a sheave shall not be used for attaching counter balance.

(f) No swing cut-off or trim saw shall be located directly in line with stock coming from an edger.

(g) Swing limit stops shall be provided and so adjusted that at no time shall the forward swing of the saw extend the cutting edge of the saw beyond a line perpendicular with the edge of the saw table, roll case, guard or barrier.

(h) Saws that are fed into the cut by means of air, steam, hydraulic cylinders, or other power device or arrangement shall be designed so they can be locked or rendered inoperative.

(i) Foot treadle operated saws shall be provided with safeguards to prevent accidental contact.

(j) Swing saws on log decks shall be equipped with a positive stop for the protection of persons who may be on the opposite side of the log haul chute.

(k) Tables or roll casings for swing saws shall be provided with stops or lineup rail to prevent material being pushed off on opposite side.

(4) Operators of hand operated swing saws shall not stand directly in front of saw while making cut.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-78-605, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-605, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-605, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-610 Circular saws, speeds, repairs.

(1) Circular saws shall not be operated at speeds in excess of that specified by the manufacturer. Speeds shall be etched on all new saws. When saws are repaired, remanufactured or retensioned in any way to change their operating speeds, such change of speed shall be etched on the saw. These etched speeds shall not be exceeded.

(2) Circular saws shall be inspected for cracks each time that the teeth are filed or set.

(3) A circular saw shall be discontinued from use until properly repaired when found to have developed a crack equal to the length indicated in the following table:

Length of Crack

Diameter

1/2 inch

Up to 12"

1 inch

Over 12" to 24"

1 1/2 inch

Over 24" to 36"

2 inch

Over 36" to 48"

2 1/2 inch

Over 48" to 60"

3 inch

Over 60"

(4) Welding or slotting of cracked saws shall be done by a sawsmith under a procedure recommended by the saw manufacturer. Holes shall not be drilled in saws as a means of arresting cracks. After saws are repaired they shall be retensioned. Unless a sawsmith is employed, saws shall be returned to the manufacturer for welding or tensioning.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-610, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-615 Saw filing and grinding rooms and equipment.

(1) Approaches to filing rooms shall be kept free from material and equipment at all times.

(2) Enclosed grinding and filing rooms shall be ventilated as specified in the general occupational health standard, WAC 296-62-110 through 296-62-11019.

(3) Each filing and grinding room shall be provided with two exits so arranged as to permit easy escape in case of fire.

(4) Floor shall be cleaned regularly and shall be kept free from oil, grease and other materials that might cause employees to slip or fall.

(5) Flooring around machines shall be kept in good repair at all times.

(6) Saw grinding machine belts shall be provided with guards where these belts pass through the frame of the machine.

(7) All grinding wheels on such machines shall be provided with a metal retaining hood which shall also cover the arbor ends if they are exposed to contact.

(8) Filing room employees shall be provided with goggles, face shields, or other necessary protective equipment and are required to wear the same.

(9) Guarding and mounting of abrasive wheels shall be in accordance with chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-78-615, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-615, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-620 Miscellaneous woodworking machines--Planers, stickers, molders, matchers.

(1) Each planing, molding, sticking and matching machine shall have all cutting heads, and saws if used, covered by a solid metal guard. If such guard is constructed of sheet metal, the material used shall be not less than one-sixteenth inch in thickness, and if cast iron is used, it shall be not less than three-sixteenths inch in thickness.

(2) Planers, stickers, molding, sticking and matching machines shall be provided with exhaust fans, hoods and dust conveyors to remove the harmful dusts, etc., from the vicinity of the operator. Such hoods may be arranged to serve as guards for cutting heads.

(3) Planers and other machinery or equipment shall not be oiled while in motion, unless provided with guards or other devices to permit oiling without any possibility of contact with moving parts of machinery.

(4) Feed rolls shall be guarded by means of roll covers, bars or strips, attached to the roll frame in such manner as to remain in adjustment for any thickness of lumber.

(5) (a) Levers or controls shall be so arranged or guarded as to prevent accidental operation of machines.

(b) Foot treadle operated machines shall have a treadle guard fastened over the treadle.

(c) Locks, blocks, or other device shall be provided for positive immobilization of machine controls while repairs or adjustments are being made.

(6) Side head hoods shall be of sufficient height to safeguard the head set screw.

(7) Side heads shall not be adjusted while machine is in operation, except when extension adjusting devices are provided.

(8) Side belt and pulley guards shall be kept in place at all times the machine is in motion.

(9) All universal joints shall be enclosed.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-620, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-620, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-625 Planers (stave and headings).

(1) Each planer (stave and heading) shall have all cutting heads, and saws if used, covered by a solid metal guard.

(2) Stave and heading planers shall be provided with exhaust fans, hoods and dust conveyors to remove the harmful dusts, etc., from the vicinity of the operator. Such hoods may be arranged to serve as guards for cutting heads.

(3) Sectional feed rolls should be provided. Where solid feed rolls are used, a sectional finger device (or other means equally effective) shall be provided to prevent kickbacks.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-625, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-630 Stave croziers.

(1) Stave croziers shall have the heads guarded completely by the exhaust hood or other device, except that portion which actually inbeds itself in the stock.

(2) Each stave crozier shall have all feed chains and sprockets completely enclosed.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-630, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-635 Jointers.

(1) Each hand feed jointer or buzz planer with horizontal head shall be provided with an automatic guard over the cutting head both in front of and in back of the guide.

(2) Each jointer or buzz planer with horizontal head shall be equipped with a cylindrical cutting head, the throat of which shall not exceed three-eighths inch in depth or one-half inch in width. The knife projection shall not exceed one-eighth inch beyond the cylindrical body of the head.

(3) The opening in the table shall be kept as small as possible. The clearance between the edge of the rear table and the cutter head shall be not more than one-eighth inch. The table throat opening shall be not more than two and one-half inches when tables are set or aligned with each other for zero cut.

(4) Each jointer or buzz planer with vertical head shall be guarded by an exhaust hood or other approved device which shall completely enclose the revolving head except for a slot sufficiently wide to permit the application of material. The guard shall effectively protect the operator's hand from coming in contact with the revolving knives. The guard shall automatically adjust itself to cover the unused portion of the head and shall remain in contact with the material at all times.

(5) Push sticks shall be provided and used for feeding stock through hand operated jointers or buzz planers. 

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-635, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-635, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-640 Jointers (stave and heading).

(1) Stave and heading jointers and matchers shall have the heads guarded completely by the exhaust hood or other device, except that portion where the stock is applied.

(2) Foot power stave jointing machines shall have the knife effectively guarded to prevent the operator's fingers from coming in contact with it.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-640, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-645 Wood shapers.

(1) The cutting head of each wood shaper, hand feed panel raiser, or other similar machine not automatically fed, shall be guarded with a cage or pulley guard or other device so designed as to keep the operator's hands away from the cutting edge. In no case shall a warning device of leather or other material attached to the spindle be acceptable. Cylindrical heads shall be used wherever the nature of the work permits. The diameter of circular shaper guards shall be not less than the greatest diameter of the cutter.

(2) All double spindle shapers shall be provided with a spindle starting and stopping device for each spindle or provision shall be made that only one spindle operate at any one time.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-645, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-650 Boring and mortising machines.

(1) Boring and mortising machines shall be provided with safety bit chucks without projecting set screws. Automatic machines shall be provided with point of operation guards. When necessary to prevent material from revolving with the bit, clamps or stops shall be provided and used to hold material firmly against the guides.

(2) The requirements of WAC 296-806-48048, Make sure boring and mortising machines meet these requirements, shall be applicable to boring and mortising machines.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-78-650, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-650, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-650, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-655 Tenoning machines.

(1) Each tenoning machine shall have all cutting heads, saws if used, and all exposed moving parts guarded. In the case of cutting heads and saws, the guard shall be of solid metal.

(2) If sheet metal is used, it shall be not less than ten U.S. gauge in thickness. If cast metal is used it shall be not less than three-sixteenths inch thick, or if aluminum is used, it shall be not less than five-eighths inch thick. The hood of the exhaust system may form part or all of the guard. When so used, the hood shall be constructed of metal of a thickness not less than that specified herein.

(3) Feed chains and sprockets of all double end tenoning machines shall be completely enclosed, except that portion of chain used for conveying stock. At rear ends of frames over which the feed conveyors run, sprockets and chains shall be guarded at the sides by plates projecting beyond the periphery of sprockets and ends of lugs.

(4) The rear end of the frame over which the feed conveyors run shall be so extended that the material as it leaves the machine will be guided to a point within easy reach of the person removing stock at the rear of the tenoner.

(5) Single end tenoners, hand fed, shall have a piece of sheet metal placed so that the operator's hands cannot slip off the lever handle into the tool in passing. Such guard shall be fastened to the lever.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-655, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-660 Lathe (pail and barrel).

(1) Each profile, swing-head and back-knife lathe shall have all cutting heads covered by a solid metal guard.

(2) If sheet metal is used, it shall be not less than ten U.S. gauge in thickness. If cast metal is used, it shall be not less than three-sixteenths inch thick, or if aluminum is used, it shall be not less than five-eighths inch thick. The hood of the exhaust system may form part or all of the guard. When so used, the hood shall be constructed of metal of a thickness not less than that specified above.

(3) Pail and barrel lathes shall be guarded in accordance with the specifications for profile and back-knife lathes insofar as they are applicable.

(4) The requirements of WAC 296-806-450 Lathes, shall be applicable to pail and barrel lathes.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-78-660, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-660, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-660, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-665 Sanding machines.

(1) Each belt sanding machine shall have both pulleys enclosed in such a manner as to guard the points where the belt runs onto the pulleys. The edges of the unused run of belt shall be enclosed or otherwise guarded from contact by employees.

(2) Each drum sanding machine shall be provided with a guard so arranged as to completely enclose the revolving drum except such portion required for the application of the material to be finished. Guards with hinges to facilitate the insertion of sandpaper may be installed. The exhaust hood may form part or all of this guard. When so used, the hood shall conform to the specifications as given under exhaust systems in WAC 296-78-710.

(3) All standard stationary sanding machines shall be provided with exhaust systems in conformity with the section of this code dealing with exhaust systems.

(4) All portable sanding machines shall be provided with means of removing excessive dust, or employees using equipment shall be provided with such necessary respiratory protective equipment as will conform to the requirements of chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators.

(5) The requirements of WAC 296-806-475 Sanding machines, shall be applicable to sanding machines.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 05-03-093 (Order 04-41), § 296-78-665, filed 01/18/05, effective 03/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-78-665, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-10 (Order 98-10), 296-78-665, filed 05/04/99, effective 09/01/99.] Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-665, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-665, filed 8/27/81.]

Chapter 296-78 Continued

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