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SHARP Publications By Project

SELECT SafetyPubs_tblPublications.*, SafetyPubs_jPubs_Projects.ProjectID FROM SafetyPubs_jPubs_Projects INNER JOIN SafetyPubs_tblPublications ON SafetyPubs_jPubs_Projects.ID = SafetyPubs_tblPublications.ID WHERE LNIUnit='SHARP' AND Inactive=0 AND (SafetyPubs_tblPublications.Language Is Null OR SafetyPubs_tblPublications.Language = '' OR SafetyPubs_tblPublications.Language='English') ORDER BY Date DESC , PublicationNum DESC

Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) Publications

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Title/Description Year Publication Info

WMSD Claims Snapshot: Back (418.86 KB)

Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) are caused by using high force, repetitive movements, awkward postures, or too much vibration on the job.

2019 Publication #:
99-02-2019

Author(s):
SHARP
Washington State Department of Labor & Industries

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WMSD Claims Snapshot: Shoulder (329.10 KB PDF)

Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) are caused by using high force, repetitive movements, awkward postures, or too much vibration on the job.

2019 Publication #:
99-01-2019

Author(s):
SHARP
Washington State Department of Labor & Industries

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Injuries in Home Health Services 2012-2016 (708.36 KB)

Injuries in Home Health Services 2012-2016

2019 Publication #:
95-04-2019

Author(s):
Washington State Department of Labor & Industries
SHARP Program

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Injuries in Home Care Services, 2012-2016 (709 KB)

Injuries in Home Care Services, 2012-2016

2019 Publication #:
95-03-2019

Author(s):
Washington State Department of Labor & Industries
SHARP program

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In-Home Care Services: An Examination of the Washington State Workers' Compensation Claims Data, 2012-2016 (1376 KB PDF)

To describe the types of workers' compensation compensable claims specific in-home care services in Washington State from 2012-2016.

2019 Publication #:
95-02-2019

Author(s):
Howard
Ninica
Adams
Darrin

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In-Home Care Services: An Examination of the Washington State Workers' Compensation Claims Data, 2012-2016 (1.35 MB)

In 2011, the National Research Council (NRC) examined home care issues from a human systems viewpoint and made recommendations for improvements when care is provided in the home environment. This council recommended improvement in four areas: 1) health care technologies, 2) care givers and care recipients, 3) the residential environment for health care and 4) research and development needs. A more robust understanding of the injuries suffered by caregivers in the home care environment can inform actions taken to improve in these four areas.

2019 Publication #:
95-02-2019

Author(s):
SHARP

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SHARP Stats: CTS and Chronic Conditions (528.94 KB PDF)

Workers' Compensation Claimants with Chronic Conditions Not Working after Injury: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome vs Upper Extremity Fracture Claimants

2019 Publication #:
76-15-2019

Author(s):
Jennifer Marcum

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: Transportation, Utilities & Warehousing (609.82 KB PDF)

This report summarizes workers' compensation (WC) claims for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the Transportation, Utilities and Warehousing sector. Results for all Washington industries can be found in the report "Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: All Washington Industries."

2018 Publication #:
40-26-2018

Author(s):
SHARP Program

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: Wholesale & Retail Trade (776.97 KB PDF)

This report summarizes workers' compensation (WC) claims for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the Wholesale and Retail Trade sector. Results for all Washington industries can be found in the report "Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: All Washington Industries."

2018 Publication #:
40-25-2018

Author(s):
SHARP Program

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: Services (816.02 KB PDF)

This report summarizes workers' compensation (WC) claims for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the Services sector. Results for all Washington industries can be found in the report "Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: All Washington Industries."

2018 Publication #:
40-24-2018

Author(s):
SHARP Program

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: Manufacturing (784.49 KB PDF)

This report summarizes workers' compensation (WC) claims for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the Manufacturing sector. Results for all Washington industries can be found in the report "Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: All Washington Industries."

2018 Publication #:
40-23-2018

Author(s):
SHARP Program

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: Health Care & Social Assistance (748.99 KB PDF)

This report summarizes workers' compensation (WC) claims for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the Health Care and Social Assistance sector. Results for all Washington industries can be found in the report "Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: All Washington Industries."

2018 Publication #:
40-22-2018

Author(s):
SHARP Program

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: Construction (775.31 KB PDF)

This report summarizes workers' compensation (WC) claims for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the Construction sector. Results for all Washington industries can be found in the report "Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: All Washington Industries."

2018 Publication #:
40-21-2018

Author(s):
SHARP Program

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (737.98 KB PDF)

This report summarizes workers' compensation (WC) claims for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing sector. Results for all Washington industries can be found in the report "Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: All Washington Industries."

2018 Publication #:
40-20-2018

Author(s):
SHARP Program

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2006-2015: All Washington Industries (1.20 MB PDF)

This report uses workers' compensation (WC) claims data from Washington State to examine Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) claim frequency, incidence rates, lost workdays, costs and industry distribution. Analyses were performed across five body areas and seven industry sectors.

2018 Publication #:
40-19-2018

Author(s):
SHARP Program

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WMSD Claims and Costs (106 KB PDF)

Declines in Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) Washington State Workers' Compensation System 1999'0132013

2017 Publication #:
76-06-2017

Author(s):
SHARP

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Sit-Stand Workstation Schedules (108 KB PDF)

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are common among office workers who spend most of their work time on computers. High static muscle loading is considered a risk factor for WMSDs.

2017 Publication #:
75-30-2017

Author(s):
SHARP

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Declines in Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (111 KB PDF)

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), such as carpal tunnel syndrome or tendonitis, are common and costly, and often have longer and more severe outcomes than other workplace injuries. WMSDs are preventable.

2017 Publication #:
75-26-2017

Author(s):
SHARP

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Home Care Services: An Examination of the Washington State Workers' Compensation Claims Data, 2010-2014 (1.19 MB PDF)

The utilization of health care services is increasing in the United States, including care services performed in the home environment. Home care services promote, maintain and restore health.

2016 Publication #:
95-1-2016

Author(s):
Ninica L. Howard
Darrin Adams

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Office Ergonomics Evaluation in a Naturalistic Work Environment (1.58 MB PDF)

An ergonomics evaluation study was conducted for Insurance Services - Support Services within Washington State Department of Labor and Industries.

2016 Publication #:
62-3-2016

Author(s):
Jia-Hua Lin
Stephen Bao

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) in Washington State - Agriculture (2.73 MB PDF)

The Agriculture sector in Washington State includes a range of industries. Workers in these environments face a multitude of occupational safety hazards that may lead to serious injuries, from fractures and dislocations to contusions and lacerations.

2016 Publication #:
40-18-2016

Author(s):
Ninica Howard
Stephen Bao
Jia-Hua Lin
Daniel Hunter
Alysa Haas

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) in Washington State - Services (2.85 MB PDF)

The Services sector in Washington State includes a range of industries. Workers in these environments face a multitude of occupational hazards that may lead to serious injuries, from fractures and dislocations to contusions and lacerations.

2016 Publication #:
40-17-2016

Author(s):
Ninica Howard
Stephen Bao
Jia-Hua Lin
Daniel Hunter
Alysa Haas

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) in Washington State - Construction (1.96 MB PDF)

The Construction sector in Washington State includes a range of industries. Workers in these environments face a multitude of occupational safety hazards, from fractures and contusions to lacerations and dislocations.

2016 Publication #:
40-16-2016

Author(s):
Ninica Howard
Stephen Bao
Jia-Hua Lin
Daniel Hunter
Alysa Haas

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Job Organization and Worker Health (109 KB PDF)

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a major health problem for workers.

2015 Publication #:
75-15-2015

Author(s):
Stephen Bao
JM Kapellusch
AS Merryweather
MS Thiese
A Garg
KT Hegmann
BA Silverstein

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Worker Perceptions of Musculoskeletal Injury (110 KB PDF)

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD's), such as carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, and bursitis remain a major occupational health problem despite decades of research, outreach and intervention.

2015 Publication #:
75-14-2015

Author(s):
Daniel Hunter
Barbara Silverstein

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VIDEO: The Caretaker Crisis: Investigating Work-Related Injuries in Healthcare

Nursing assistants are instrumental to the care of our elderly population. Yet, they experience some of the highest injury rates among workers in Washington State. The SHARP Program presents 2 worker injury stories that nearly ended careers, showing how caring for others often leaves workers' bodies changed forever. This video introduces the caretaker crisis and invites you to learn more about SHARP's systems-level research aimed at uncovering prevention answers.

2015 Publication #:
61-6-2015

Author(s):
Alysa Haas

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) in Washington State - Wholesale and Retail Trade (2.69 MB PDF)

The Wholesale & Retail Trade sector in Washington State includes a range of industries. Workers in these environments face a multitude of occupational safety hazards, from fractures and dislocations to lacerations and amputations.

2015 Publication #:
40-15-2015

Author(s):
Ninica Howard
Stephen Bao
Jia-Hua Lin
Daniel Hunter
Alysa Haas

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) in Washington State - Manufacturing (3.06MB PDF)

The Manufacturing sector in Washington State includes a range of industries. Workers in these environments face a multitude of occupational safety hazards, from fractures and dislocations to lacerations and amputations.

2015 Publication #:
40-14-2015

Author(s):
Ninica Howard
Stephen Bao
Jia-Hua Lin
Daniel Hunter
Alysa Haas

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) in Washington State - Health Care (2.40MB PDF)

The health care sector in Washington State includes a range of industries. Workers in these environments face a multitude of occupational safety hazards, from cuts and burns to exposure to hazardous materials and acts of violent aggression.

2015 Publication #:
40-13-2015

Author(s):
Ninica Howard
Stephen Bao
Jia-Hua Lin
Daniel Hunter
Alysa Haas

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2002-2010. - Summary Only (240 KB PDF)

We report the frequency, incidence rate (number of new claims per 10,000 full-time equivalent employees FTEs, CIR), severity rate (number of lost days per 10,000 FTEs, SR), cost, lost time and industry group distribution of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in Washington State in order to monitor and help focus prevention efforts by business, labor and government.

2015 Publication #:
40-12-2015-a

Author(s):
Naomi Anderson
Darrin Adams
David Bonauto
Ninica Howard

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Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Back, Upper Extremity, and Knee in Washington State, 2002-2010. - Technical Report (2.95 MB PDF)

We report the frequency, incidence rate (number of new claims per 10,000 full-time equivalent employees FTEs, CIR), severity rate (number of lost days per 10,000 FTEs, SR), cost, lost time and industry group distribution of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in Washington State in order to monitor and help focus prevention efforts by business, labor and government.

2015 Publication #:
40-12-2015

Author(s):
Naomi Anderson
Darrin Adams
David Bonauto
Ninica Howard

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Developing a pooled job physical exposure data set from multiple independent studies: an example of a consortium study of carpal tunnel syndrome.

Six research groups independently conducted prospective studies of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) incidence in 54 US workplaces in 10 US States. Physical exposure variables were collected by all research groups at the individual worker level. Data from these research groups were pooled to increase the exposure spectrum and statistical power.

2015 Author(s):
SS Bao
JM Kapellusch
A Garg
BA Silverstein
C Harris-Adamson
SE Burt
AM Dale
BA Evanoff
FE Gerr
KT Hegmann
LA Merlino
MS Thiese
DM Rempel

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Perceptions of risk from workers in high risk industries with work related musculoskeletal disorders

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) remain a major occupational health problem, despite decades of research, outreach, and intervention.

2014 Author(s):
Daniel Hunter
Barbara Silverstein

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Effects of varying case definition on carpal tunnel syndrome prevalence estimates in a pooled cohort.

To analyze differences in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) prevalence using a combination of electrodiagnostic studies (EDSs) and symptoms using EDS criteria varied across a range of cutpoints and compared with symptoms in both greater than or equal to 1 and greater than or equal to 2 median nerve-served digits.

2014 Author(s):
MS Thiese
F Gerr
KT Hegmann
C Harris-Adamson
AM Dale
B Evanoff
EA Eisen
J Kapellusch
A Garg
S Burt
S Bao
B Silverstein
L Merlino
D Rempel

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Automation of workplace lifting hazard assessment for musculoskeletal injury prevention.

Existing methods for practically evaluating musculoskeletal exposures such as posture and repetition in workplace settings have limitations. We aimed to automate the estimation of parameters in the revised United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, a standard manual observational tool used to evaluate back injury risk related to lifting in workplace settings, using depth camera (Microsoft Kinect) and skeleton algorithm technology.

2014 Author(s):
JT Spector
M Lieblich
S Bao
K McQuade
M Hughes

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Use of an O*NET based job exposure matrix to predict prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in a large pooled cohort.

To determine if job title based physical exposure measures predicted prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a large pooled cohort of workers.

2014 Author(s):
A Marie Dale
A Zeringue
C Harris-Adamson
M Thiese
S Bao
S Burt
L Merlino
A Garg
E Eisen
F Gerr
K Hegmann
J Kapellusch
D Rempel
B Silverstein
B Evanoff

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How well are we controlling falls from height in construction? Experiences of union carpenters in Washington State, 1989-2008.

Falls from height (FFH) continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality across the construction industry.

2014 Author(s):
HJ Lipscomb
AL Schoenfisch
W Cameron
KL Kucera
D Adams
BA Silverstein

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Twenty years of workers' compensation costs due to falls from height among union carpenters, Washington State.

Falls from height (FFH) are a longstanding, serious problem in construction

2014 Author(s):
HJ Lipscomb
AL Schoenfisch
W Cameron
KL Kucera
D Adams
BA Silverstein

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20 years (1989-2008) of direct costs associated with falls from height among union carpenters, Washington State, USA.

To examine trends in workers' compensation payments for falls from height (FFH) among a large cohort of carpenters over a 20-year period (1989-2008). Cost data provide an important metric reflecting frequency of falls and severity of associated injuries.

2014 Author(s):
H Lipscomb
A Schoenfisch
W Cameron
K Kucera
D Adams
B Silverstein

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Exposure-response relationships for the ACGIH threshold limit value for hand-activity level: results from a pooled data study of carpal tunnel syndrome.

This paper aimed to quantify exposure-response relationships between the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for hand-activity level (HAL) and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).

2014 Author(s):
JM Kapellusch
FE Gerr
EJ Malloy
A Garg
C Harris Adamson
S Bao
SE Burt
AM Dale
EA Eisen
BA Evanoff
KT Hegmann
BA Silverstein
MS Theise
DM Rempel

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Personal and workplace psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: a pooled study cohort: author response.

The analysis we presented in the August 2013 issue of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 1 was performed by pooling raw data from 3515 workers from more than 50 workplaces collected by six research teams. This was not a meta-analysis but rather an analysis of data at the level of the individual participants.

2014 Author(s):
C Harris- Adamson
EC Eisen
AM Dale
B Evanoff
KT Hegmann
MS Thiese
J Kapellusch
A Garg
S Burt
B Silverstein
S Bao
L Merlino
F Gerr
D Rempel

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Workplace psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: a pooled prospective study

Seven research groups conducted coordinated studies of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In this analysis of the pooled cohort, we estimate associations of workplace psychosocial factors and CTS incidence with adjustment for biomechanical factors.

2014 Author(s):
C Harris Adamson
E Eisen
K Hegman
M Thiese
B Silverstein
S Bao
A Garg
J Kapellusch
S Burt
F Gerr
L Merlino
A Marie Dale
B Evanoff
D Rempel

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Predicting work-related incidence of lateral and medial epicondylitis using the strain index.

The Strain Index (SI) has been developed to evaluate the risk for developing a distal upper extremity disorder. The objective of this study is to determine if the SI predicts incidence cases of work-related lateral, medial, or any epicondylitis (LEPI, MEPI, and EPI).

2014 Author(s):
ZJ Fan
S Bao
BA Silverstein
NL Howard
CK Smith
DK Bonauto

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Lateral epicondylitis: New evidence for work relatedness

No article, unless you sign-in.

2014 Author(s):
A Descatha
AM Dale
BA Silverstein
Y Roquelaure
D Rempel

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Perceptions of risk from workers in high risk industries with work related musculoskeletal disorders - Summary

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) remain a major occupational health problem, despite decades of research, outreach, and intervention.

2014 Author(s):
Daniel Hunter
Barbara Silverstein

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Biomechanical risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: a pooled study of 2474 workers

Between 2001 and 2010, five research groups conducted coordinated prospective studies of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) incidence among US workers from various industries and collected detailed subject-level exposure information with follow-up of symptoms, electrophysiological measures and job changes.

2014 Author(s):
C Harris-Adamson
EA Eisen
J Kapellusch
A Garg
KT Hegmann
MS Thiese
AM Dale
B Evanoff
S Burt
S Bao
B Silverstein
L Merlino
F Gerr
D Rempel

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Manual movement coordination adapted to spinal cord injury and low back pain.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) and low back pain (LBP) significantly limit personal and occupational activities. Since upper body movements are crucial to extend hand reach envelopes and maintain postural balance, coordinated control of torso and hand movements is essential.

2013 Author(s):
K Han Kim
Bernard Martin

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Categorizing job physical exposures using simple methods.

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are 27% of compensable workers compensation claims in Washington State, caused primarily by manual handling, repetitive motion and static loading. We hypothesize that companies which take measures to improve physical work conditions, work organization and safety culture will have fewer WMSD cases compared to those which do not consider workplace ergonomic conditions.

2012 Author(s):
Stephen Bao
Barbara Silverstein

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Water and coffee: A systems approach to improving coffee harvesting work in Nicaragua.

The aim of this study was to reduce the physical load on coffee-harvesting workers while maintaining productivity.

2012 Author(s):
Barbara Silverstein
Stephen Bao
Steven Russell
Kate Stewart

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The impact of regulatory enforcement and consultation visits on workers' compensation claims incidence rates and costs, 1999-2008.

Studies of regulatory effectiveness have shown mixed evidence of impact of inspections on injury rates. We examine changes in workers compensation claims rates and costs for Washington employers having either an inspection, with or without citation, or a voluntary consultation activity.

2012 Author(s):
Michael Foley
Eddy Rauser
Barbara Silverstein

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Burden of Work-Related Knee Disorders in Washington State, 1999 to 2007

To describe the burden of knee work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs).

2011 Author(s):
June Spector
Darrin Adams
Barbara Silverstein

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Comparison of two different methods for performing combination analysis of force and posture risk factors in an epidemiological study.

This study aimed to introduce a method of simultaneous combination analysis of multiple exposure parameters for large epidemiological studies of work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and compare this analysis method with the conventionally used job-level combination analysis method when applied in exposure - response analysis of work-related upper-extremity MSD.

2011 Author(s):
Stephen Bao
Ninica Howard
Spielholz P
Barbara Silverstein
Polissar N

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Medical care surrounding work-related back injury claims among Washington State Union Carpenters, 1989 - 2003.

We describe medical care received through workers' compensation (WC) and union-provided insurance surrounding work-related back injuries and examine relationships between care provided and time off work among a large cohort of carpenters.

2011 Author(s):
Kristen Kucera
Hester Lipscomb
Barbara Silverstein

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Responsiveness of the QuickDASH and SF-12 in workers with neck or upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders: One-year follow-up.

Questionnaires that measure functional status such as the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) can quantify the impact of health on performance.

2011 Author(s):
Joyce Fan
Caroline Smith
Barbara Silverstein

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The use of a hand-held pen computer for field data entry.

Frequent, detailed visual observations can be a critical component of many industrial hygiene and ergonomic investigations, but they are cumbersome and labor intensive due to paperwork, data entry, and data management. New electronic technologies show promise for easing these problems. The Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention (SHARP) Program at the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries has a goal of reducing the injury and illness rate in the state by conducting research and demonstration projects.

2011 Author(s):
William Daniels
Stanley Salisbury
Martin Cohen
Michael Cotey

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Burden of work-related knee disorders in Washington State, 1999 to 2007.

To describe the burden of knee work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Knee WMSDs were identified using Washington State Fund workers' compensation data from 1999 to 2007 and analyzed by cost, industry, occupation, and claims incidence rates.

2011 Author(s):
June Spector
Darrin Adams
Barbara Silverstein

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Limited English Proficiency in Workers' Compensation (559.28 KB PDF)

Workers with limited English proficiency likely perform more hazardous work, experience higher rates of work-related injury and illness, and have worse disability outcomes.

2010 Publication #:
75-31-2018

Author(s):
whca235

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Preparing employers to implement the Washington State Ergonomics Rule: Evaluation of the training workshops.

Training of managers and workers is a mainstay of health and safety practice but it is rarely evaluated. We assessed the change in knowledge and perceived competence of participants, regarding the Washington State Ergonomics Rule, with the implementation of a 4-hour training session.

2010 Author(s):
Syed Shah
Barbara Silverstein

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Prioritizing prevention opportunities in the Washington State construction industry, 2003-2007.

This study compares construction industry groups in Washington State by injury severity and cost, and ranks industry groups according to potential for prevention.

2010 Author(s):
Todd Schoonover
David Bonauto
Barbara Silverstein
Darrin Adams
Randy Clark

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Adaptation of torso movement strategies in persons with spinal cord injury or low back pain.

Controlled laboratory study. Statistical regression and between-group comparisons. To characterize functional limitation and adaptive strategies in seated manual transport tasks for spinal cord injury (SCI), low back pain (LBP), and control participants.

2010 Author(s):
K Han Kim
Su Bang Choe
Andrew Haig
Bernard Martin

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Lessons from a morbidly obese nurse patient.

An interview was conducted with a morbidly obese registered nurse who was also a patient in a nursing home. He describes his experience during an admission to a large acute care hospital.

2010 Author(s):
Barbara Silverstein

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The natural course of carpal tunnel syndrome in a working population.

The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, incidence, and persistence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and associated symptoms over a one-year period in a working population.

2010 Author(s):
BA Silverstein
ZJ Fan
DK Bonauto
S Bao
CK Smith
N Howard
E Viikari-Juntura

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Inter-rater reliability of physical examinations in a prospective study of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders.

To test the inter-rater reliability of physical examinations for upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders.

2010 Author(s):
Caroline Smith
David Bonauto
Barbara Silverstein
Dana Wilcox

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A practical method for ergonomic and usability evaluation of hand tools: A comparison of three random orbital sander configurations.

Tool and equipment purchasing decisions are constantly made by companies and workers, often with little objective information beyond word of mouth and marketing information. This study presents a pilot investigation of random orbital sanders using ergonomic and usability assessment techniques which can easily be applied in any industry.

2010 Author(s):
Peregrin Spielholz
Stephen Bao
Ninica Howard

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Comparison of self-report, video observation and direct measurement methods for upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder physical risk factors.

The prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders has become a national priority in many countries. Increasingly, attempts are made to quantify those exposures that increase risk in order to set exposure limit values.

2010 Author(s):
Peregrin Spielholz
Barbara Silverstein
Michael Morgan
Harvey Checkoway
Joel Kaufman

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Comparison of ergonomist, supervisor, and worker assessments of work-related musculoskeletal risk factors.

In primary prevention efforts to reduce the incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disease (MSD), many employers will use supervisor or worker assessments for initial evaluation of MSD risk factors.

2010 Author(s):
Lori Winnemuller
Peregrin Spielholz
William Daniell
Joel Kaufman

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An analysis of injuries among home health care workers using the Washington State workers' compensation claims database.

An examination of the Washington State workers' compensation claims for home health care workers was conducted. Some comparisons were made with nursing homes, acute care hospitals, and all other industries in the state.

2010 Author(s):
Ninica Howard
Darrin Adams

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Inter-observer reliability of forceful exertion analysis based on video-recordings.

The objectives were to examine inter-observer reliability of job-level forceful exertion analyses and temporal agreement of detailed time study results. Three observers performed the analyses on 12 different jobs. Continuous duration, frequency and % time of lifting, pushing/pulling, power and pinch gripping exertions and estimated level of the exertions were obtained.

2010 Author(s):
Stephen Bao
Ninica Howard
P. Spielholz
Barbara Silverstein

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Ergonomic Evaluation at Bill Processing, Insurance Services - A detailed office ergonomics case study (2.16 MB PDF)

An ergonomics evaluation study was conducted for Washington State Department of Labor and Industries' Bill Processing Unit.

2009 Publication #:
62-2-2009

Author(s):
Stephen Bao
Han Kim
Barbara Silverstein
Eddy Rauser

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Interrater reliability of posture observations.

The aims of this research were (a) to study the interrater reliability of a posture observation method, (b) to test the impact of different posture categorization systems on interrater reliability, and (c) to provide guidelines for improving interrater reliability.

2009 Author(s):
Stephen Bao
Ninica Howard
Peregrin Spielholz
Barbara Silverstein
Nayak Polissar

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Application of the Strain Index in multiple task jobs.

Six different methods to calculate the Strain Index (SI) scores for jobs with multiple forces/tasks were developed. Exposure data of 733 subjects from 12 different worksites were used to calculate these SI scores. Results show that using different SI computation methods could result in different SI scores, hence different risk level classifications. However, some simpler methods generated SI scores were comparable to the more complicated composite SI method.

2009 Author(s):
Stephen Bao
Peregrin Spielholz
Ninica Howard
Barbara Silverstein

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Force measurement in field ergonomics research and application.

This paper addresses the issue of quantifying forceful exertions of lifting, pushing/pulling, pinch and power griping with several commonly used methods (direct measurement, force-matching, ergonomist estimation based on observation and worker's self-report). The aims were to study differences of ergonomists in making decisions of collecting forceful exertion data, ability of the studied force quantification methods in detecting exposure differences between jobs, and relationships between measurements obtained by different methods.

2009 Author(s):
Stephen Bao
Peregrin Spielholz
Ninica Howard
Barbara Silverstein

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Reliability of an observational tool to assess the organization of work.

This paper examines the reliability of an observational tool used to assess the organization of work. The utility of the tool was assessed through inter-item correlations (Spearman coefficients), inter- and intra-rater reliability (kappa statistics), factor analysis (principal components) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha).

2009 Author(s):
Ninica Howard
Peregrin Spielholz
Stephen Bao
Barbara Silverstein
Joyce Fan

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Predictors of delayed return to work after back injury: A case-control analysis of union carpenters in Washington State.

Union administrative records identified 20,642 union carpenters who worked in Washington State from 1989 to 2003. The Department of Labor and Industries provided records of workers' compensation claims and associated medical care. Work-related back claims (n = 4,241) were identified by ANSI codes (back, trunk, or neck/back) or ICD-9 codes relevant to medical care consistent with a back injury.

2009 Author(s):
Kristen Kucera
Hester Lipscomb
Barbara Silverstein
Wilfred Cameron

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Compensation costs of work-related back disorders among union carpenters, Washington State 1989-2003.

We measured resources used to provide medical care and to estimate lost productivity represented by payments for lost work time or impairment for work-related back injuries among a large cohort of union carpenters over 15 years.

2009 Author(s):
Hester Lipscomb
John Dement
Barbara Silverstein
Wilfrid Cameron
Judith Glazner

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Who is paying the bills? Health care costs for musculoskeletal back disorders, Washington state union carpenters, 1989-2003.

Factors associated with private health insurance payment rates for musculoskeletal back disorders were examined among a 15-year cohort of union carpenters. Payment patterns were contrasted with work-related back injury rates over time.

2009 Author(s):
Hester Lipscomb
John Dement
Barbara Silverstein
Wilfrid Cameron
Judith Glazner

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Health care utilization for musculoskeletal back disorders, Washington State Union Carpenters, 1989-2003.

Private health care utilization rates for musculoskeletal back disorders were contrasted to rates of work-related injuries or disorders for a large cohort of union carpenters over a 15-year period.

2009 Author(s):
Hester Lipscomb
John Dement
Barbara Silverstein
Kristen Kucera
Wilfrid Cameron

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Language preference and non-traumatic low back disorders in Washington state workers' compensation.

Workers in the United States with limited English proficiency likely perform more hazardous work, experience higher rates of work-related injury and illness, and have worse disability outcomes. We conducted a descriptive study of employment characteristics, timeliness and utilization of workers' compensation (WC) insurance benefits, cost and occupational health outcomes for Washington State WC state fund, non-traumatic low back disorders (LBD) claimants by language preference.

2009 Author(s):
David Bonauto
Caroline Smith
Darrin Adams
Barbara Silverstein
Michael Foley

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Quantitative exposure-response relations between physical workload and prevalence of lateral epicondylitis in a working population.

Lateral epicondylitis is a common work-related musculoskeletal disorder. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with lateral epicondylitis among active workers.

2009 Author(s):
Joyce Fan
Barbara Silverstein
Stephen Bao
Dave Bonauto
Ninica Howard
Peregrin Spielholz
Caroline Smith
Nayak Polissar
Eira Viikari-Juntura

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Gender adjustment or stratification in discerning upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder risk?

The aim was to explore whether "adjustment" for gender masks important exposure differences between men and women in a study of rotator cuff syndrome (RCS) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and work exposures.

2009 Author(s):
B Silverstein
ZJ Fan
CK Smith
S Bao
N Howard
P Spielholz
D Bonauto
E Viikari-Juntura

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Rotator cuff syndrome: Personal, work-related psychosocial and physical load factors.

To identify factors associated with rotator cuff syndrome (RCS) among active workers.

2008 Author(s):
Barbara Silverstein
Stephen Bao
Joyce Fan
Ninica Howard
Caroline Smith
Peregrin Spielholz
David Bonauto
Eira Viikari-Juntura

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Reliability and validity assessment of the hand activity level threshold limit value and strain index using expert ratings of mono-task jobs.

This study evaluated two subjective assessment methods for physical work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) risk factors. A total of 567 participants from 12 companies in the manufacturing and health care industries were evaluated using the hand activity level (HAL) threshold limit value (TLV) and the Strain Index.

2008 Author(s):
Peregrin Spielholz
Stephen Bao
Ninica Howard
Barbara Silverstein
Joyce Fan
Caroline Smith
Carolyn Salazar

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Field evaluation of a new grocery checkstand design.

A novel express checkstand with basket cut-out was developed and evaluated in a small grocery store chain.

2008 Author(s):
Peregrin Spielholz
Ninica Howard
Ernesto Carcamo
Bruce Coulter

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Psychosocial factors and shoulder symptom development among workers.

Shoulder injuries are a common cause of pain and discomfort. Many work-related factors have been associated with the onset of shoulder symptoms. The psychosocial concepts in the demand013control model have been studied in association with musculoskeletal symptoms but with heterogeneous findings. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the psychosocial concepts of the demand013control model and the incidence of shoulder symptoms in a working population.

2008 Author(s):
Caroline Smith
Barbara Silverstein
Joyce Fan
Stephen Bao
Peter Johnson

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Assessing Validity of the QuickDASH and SF-12 as Surveillance Tools among Workers with Neck or Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders.

The purpose of this article was to assess validity of the regional Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) and Short-Form 12 (SF-12) for surveillance purpose. We compared the predictive, discriminate, and concurrent validity of the QuickDASH and SF-12 among 231 workers with specific clinical diagnoses of neck or upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDs) and 175 workers with symptoms only.

2008 Author(s):
Joyce Fan
Caroline Smith
Barbara Silverstein

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Back injuries among union carpenters in Washington State, 1989-2003.

There is limited information on occupational back pain specific to carpenters despite their known exposures to recognized occupational risk factors and limited opportunities for modified work due to the predominantly heavy nature of their work.

2008 Author(s):
Hester Lipscomb
Wilfrid Cameron
Barbara Silverstein

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Incident and recurrent back injuries among union carpenters.

To describe incident and recurrent work-related back injuries among union carpenters, describe the hazard function for each and associated risk factors, and explore predictors of subsequent musculoskeletal back injury based on different definitions of the initial injury.

2008 Author(s):
HJ Lipscomb
W Cameron
B Silverstein

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Estimating the effectiveness of ergonomics interventions through case studies: implications for predictive cost-benefit analysis.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) can help to justify an investment in ergonomics interventions. A predictive CBA model would allow practitioners to present a cost justification to management during the planning

2008 Author(s):
Richard Goggins
Peregrin Spielholz
Greg Nothstein

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Impact of implementing the Washington State ergonomics rule on employer reported risk factors and hazard reduction activity.

In Washington State an ergonomics rule was adopted in 2000 that focused on primary prevention. The implementation process followed a 6-year phase-in schedule where employers came into compliance based upon their size and industry. In late 2003 the rule was repealed by an industry-funded voter initiative. Evaluating the implementation of this rule offers a unique opportunity to observe the general deterrent effect of a new public health regulation and to study how employers and workers responded to new requirements.

2008 Author(s):
Michael Foley
Barbara Silverstein
Nayak Polissar
Blazej Neradilek

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Accuracy of a disability instrument to identify workers likely to develop upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders.

Work related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) result in substantial disability, and expense. Identifying workers or jobs with high risk can trigger intervention before workers are injured or the condition worsens

2007 Author(s):
Bert Stover
Barbara Silverstein
Thomas Wickizer
Diane Martin
Joel Kaufman

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The economic burden of carpal tunnel syndrome: Long-term earnings of CTS claimants in Washington state.

The long-term earnings losses borne by injured workers, beyond those covered by workers' compensation insurance, are rarely estimated. The post-claim earnings of a cohort of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) claimants are tracked over a period of 6 years and compared to the earnings of claimants with either upper extremity fractures or dermatitis.

2007 Author(s):
Michael Foley
Barbara Silverstein
Nayak Polissar

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Low back pain and the workplace.

We believe that the Commentary on back pain in the workplace by Dr. Hadler and colleagues poorly serves clinicians, patients with low back pain, and occupational health and safety professionals seeking to reduce the burden of low back pain among working people.1 The authors argue that low back pain does not occur as a consequence of occupational physical demands (eg, lifting, twisting of the trunk, whole body vibration) but rather as a result of the "psychosocial context" of work and other phenomena.

2007 Author(s):
Arun Garg
Fred Gerr
Jeffrey Katz
William Marras
Barbara Silverstein

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Two posture analysis approaches and their application in a modified Rapid Upper Limb Assessment evaluation.

This paper presents two posture risk quantification methods: first, an event-based method where the most common and the worst postures are estimated in a task; second, a time-based method where posture distributions are calculated from random samples of observed postures in the task. A 'click-on-screen' posture data entry method was developed for the time-based posture analysis method to make the observation process easier and to reduce possible posture categorization bias.

2007 Author(s):
Stephen Bao
Ninica Howard
P. Spielholz
Barbara Silverstein

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Quantifying repetitive hand activity for epidemiological research on musculoskeletal disorders - Part II: Comparison of different methods of measuring force level and repetitiveness.

This paper focuses on comparisons between the different methods of assessing repetitive hand activities. Various methods were used to measure hand force and repetitiveness of hand activities on 733 subjects in the study described by Bao et al. (2006). Two definitions of repetitiveness were used in analysis of detailed time studies of repetitive hand activities and four parameters of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) hand activity level (HAL) and the Strain Index methods were estimated by ergonomists and used to quantify repetitiveness. Hand forces were measured or estimated using three different methods: 1) measured with a force gauge or mimicked on a force gauge (force matching); 2) estimated by ergonomists using rating scales; 3) self-reports by subjects. The jobs were also evaluated using the ACGIH HAL and Strain Index methods when different repetitiveness quantification methods were used.

2007 Author(s):
Stephen Bao
Ninica Howard
P. Spielholz
Barbara Silverstein

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Quantifying repetitive hand activity for epidemiological research on musculoskeletal disorders - Part I: Individual exposure assessment.

An exposure measurement approach is described for quantifying repetitive hand activity of individual workers in a prospective epidemiological study on work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. A total of 733 subjects were involved in this study at the baseline. Hand activities were quantified by force and repetition.

2007 Author(s):
Stephen Bao
P. Spielholz
Ninica Howard
Barbara Silverstein

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Estimation of hand force in ergonomic job evaluations.

The aims of the present study were: (1) to collect normative data of pinch and power grip strength with a newer digital dynamometer; (2) to study the ability of hand grip force matching using a hand dynamometer where the validity and reliability issues were studied; and (3) to study the relationship between hand grip force matching and muscle activities of three forearm and hand muscles.

2007 Author(s):
Stephen Bao
Barbara Silverstein

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Barbara Silverstein and Ninica Howard, "Lift that Patient, Spare that Back (www.nwpublichealth.org)," Northwest Public Health, Fall/Winter 2006. (1013 KB  PDF)

Ways to reduce lifting injuries

2006 Author(s):
Barbara Silverstein
Ninica Howard

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Calibrating Borg scale ratings of hand force exertion.

A study was conducted to assess the efficacy of calibrating subjective worker ratings of hand exertions to reduce error in estimates of applied force. Twenty volunteer subjects applied pinch and power grip forces corresponding to their perceptions of different Borg CR-10 scale levels using both "grip-to-scale" and "guided-grip" procedures.

2006 Author(s):
Peregrin Spielholz

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Natural course of nontraumatic rotator cuff tendinitis and shoulder symptoms in a working population.

This study assessed the prevalence, incidence, and persistence of nontraumatic rotator cuff tendinitis and shoulder symptoms over a 1-year period in a working population and the predictive value of symptoms and physical findings.

2006 Author(s):
Barbara Silverstein
E Viikari-Juntura
ZJ Fan
DK Bonauto
S Bao
C Smith

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Self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms and observed risk factors in bareroot tree nurseries.

A cross-sectional study of jobs at four bareroot reforestation tree nurseries in Washington and Oregon investigated the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and potential work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), and analyzed their association with physical and psychosocial risk factors of the jobs.

2005 Author(s):
NL Howard
P Spielholz
MA Cohen
B Silverstein

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Innovations Newsletter - 2004 Edition. (740 KB  PDF)

Adults get asthma too

2004 Publication #:
15-10-2004

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Interventions to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) continue to present a major challenge to workers and their employers in virtually every industry sector.

2004 Author(s):
Barbara Silverstein
Randy Clark

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Reaching managers at an industry association conference: evaluation of ergonomics training.

Managers rarely receive targeted safety and health training, despite the belief that management support is important for a successful workplace safety and health program. A program evaluation was performed on an ergonomics workshop for managers attending an industry association conference.

2003 Author(s):
CC Curwick
CK Reeb-Whitaker
CL Connon

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Use of a prevention index to identify industries at high risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, back, and upper extremity in Washington State, 1990-1998.

The prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome and low back disorders has been a focus of international prevention efforts including regulation. This study examines workers compensation claims in Washington State to provide baseline data from which to assess the need and the effects of prevention activities.

2002 Author(s):
Barbara Silverstein
Eira Viikari-Juntura
John Kalat

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An electromyography study in three high risk poultry processing jobs.

This paper presents the results of a muscle load study of poultry processing operators performing three different jobs: basket packing, cutting/packing and trimming. Eighteen operators participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from bilateral upper trapezius, right forearm flexor and extensor muscles during the job performance. Results showed high muscle loads of the forearm flexor and extensor muscles for the operators conducting all three jobs.

2001 Author(s):
Stephen Bao
Barbara Silverstein
Martin Cohen

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Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders at Workplaces in the People's Republic of China.

This paper presents 2 musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire surveys in 10 different Chinese occupational groups. Data collected from 1,603 workers using a modified Nordic musculoskeletal disorders symptom questionnaire showed that the 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, particularly in the low back and shoulder-neck regions, was high at many Chinese workplaces.

2000 Author(s):
Stephen Bao
J. Winkel
H. Shahnavaz

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Role of physical load factors in carpal tunnel syndrome.

Epidemiologic and experimental studies were reviewed to assess the role of postural factors, high handgrip and pinch forces, repetitive hand and wrist movements, external pressure, and vibration in the occurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).

1999 Author(s):
E Viikari-Juntura
B Silverstein

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Reproducibility of a self-report questionnaire for upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder risk factors.

A self-report questionnaire was developed to evaluate the potential for assessment of possible risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Visual-analog and categorical scales were designed to represent responses relating to primary work as well as a second job and hobbies or non-work activities.

1999 Author(s):
Peregrin Spielholz
Barbara Silverstein
Mark Stuart

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An ergonomic characterization of work in concrete form construction.

Concrete formwork construction was identified as the area of greatest ergonomic risk in unionized carpentry by both managers and unionized carpenters.

1998 Author(s):
P Spielholz
SF Wiker
B Silverstein

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Claims incidence of work-related disorders of the upper extremities: Washington State, 1987 through 1995.

This study examined the claim incidence rate, cost, and industry distribution of work-related upper extremity disorders in Washington.

1998 Author(s):
B Silverstein
E Welp
N Nelson
J Kalat

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Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: Comparison of data sources for surveillance.

Work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders "associated with repeated trauma" account for more than 60% of all newly reported occupational illness, 332,000 in 1994 according to the U.S. Department of Labor.

1998 Author(s):
Barbara Silverstein
Diana Stetson
W. Monroe Keyserling
Lawrence Fine

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Surveillance of work-related musculoskeletal injuries among union carpenters.

Combined data sources, including union administrative records and workers' compensation claims, were used to construct event histories for a dynamic cohort of union carpenters from Washington State during the period 1989-1992.

1998 Author(s):
Hester Lipscomb
John Dement
Dana Loomis
Barbara Silverstein
John Kalat

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Risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders in an aluminum smelter.

A cross-sectional study of selected jobs in an aluminum smelter was conducted to assess the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs), and to estimate their association with physical and psychosocial characteristics of the jobs. A structured interview and physical exam were used to assess the musculoskeletal health status of the participants, and a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the psychosocial factors.

1998 Author(s):
Richard Hughes
Barbara Silverstein
Bradley Evanoff

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Workplace changes associated with a reduction in musculoskeletal symptoms in office workers.

The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with reductions observed in musculoskeletal symptoms when office workers were moved to a new building.

1998 Author(s):
NA Nelson
BA Silverstein

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Interactive effect of ergonomics and production engineering on shoulder-neck exposure - A case study of assembly work in China and Sweden.

Ergonomic improvements of work station design have been widely embraced as a measure for reduction of physical work load (mechanical exposure) and prevention or control of occupational shoulder-neck disorders. However, other elements of work rationalization, more in the hands of production engineers, may also influence the mechanical exposure.

1997 Author(s):
S. Bao
J. Winkel
S. E. Mathiassen
H. Shahnavaz

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Ergonomic effects of a management-based rationalization in assembly work - a case study.

Due to unsatisfactory productivity, a large company in the Swedish manufacturing industry decided to rationalize their assembly system. The intended rationalization comprised several changes with deliberate ergonomic implications. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the rationalization on the physical work load of the operators.

1996 Author(s):
S. Bao
S. E. Mathiassen
J. Winkel

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Upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders at a pulp and paper mill.

A small cross-sectional study of upper extremity disorders was conducted in two departments of a pulp and paper mill.

1996 Author(s):
Barbara Silverstein
Richard Hughes

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Musculoskeletal disorders: Work-related risk factors and prevention.

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders cause chronic pain and functional impairment, impose heavy costs on society, and reduce productivity. In this position paper from the Scientific Committee for Musculoskeletal Disorders of the ICOH, the most important risk factors at work are described.

1996 Author(s):
S Kilborn
T Armstrong
P Buckle
L Fine
M Hagberg
M Haring-Sweeney
B Martin
B Silverstein
G Sjogaard
T Theorell
E Viikari-Juntura

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Normalizing upper trapezius EMG amplitude: Comparison of different procedures.

Different procedures have been used for normalization of upper trapezius electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes. This complicates comparisons between studies. The present study aimed at investigating the influence of some commonly used trapezius EMG normalization procedures on the results of ergonomic analyses, as well as the test-retest repeatability of these procedures.

1995 Author(s):
S. Bao
S. E. Mathiassen
J. Winkel

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The effectiveness of a joint labor-management program in controlling awkward postures of the trunk, neck, and shoulders: Results of a field study.

Awkward working posture at the trunk, neck and shoulders may be caused by a number of factors, including: workstation layout, visual demands of the job, design of equipment and tools, and work methods. Because awkward posture is a recognized risk factor for the development of fatigue, discomfort, and/or disability, the elimination or reduction of awkward work posture is a major objective of many workplace ergonomic programs.

1993 Author(s):
WM Keyserling
M Brouwer
BA Silverstein

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A checklist for evaluating ergonomic risk factors associated with upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders.

A two-page checklist for determining the presence of ergonomic risk factors associated with the development of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders (e.g., repetitiveness, local mechanical contact stresses, forceful manual exertions, awkward postures, and hand tool usage) was developed and evaluated as part of a joint labour-management ergonomics intervention programme.

1993 Author(s):
WM Keyserling
DS Stetson
BA Silverstein
ML Brouwer

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A checklist for evaluating ergonomic risk factors resulting from awkward postures of the legs, trunk and neck.

A one-page checklist for determining the presence of ergonomic risk factors associated with awkward postures of the lower extremities, trunk and neck was developed and evaluated as part of a joint labor-management ergonomics intervention program.

1992 Author(s):
WM Keyserling
M Brouwer
BA Silverstein

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The promises and problems of ergonomics application in the People's Republic of China.

Ergonomics or human factors, as an applied science concerning the design of interfaces between man, machine and the working environment, has shown its great capacities and potentials for improving working conditions and efficiency during its applications in most industrially developed countries (IC). As a means of improving the economy, industrialization has been initiated in many industrially developing countries (DC). Knowledge and technology available in ICs have been transferred to DCs in order to increase the process of industrialization.

1989 Author(s):
S. Bao
H. Shahnavaz

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Detection of cumulative trauma disorders of upper extremities in the workplace.

Surveillance for musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity in industry is in its infancy. Research efforts to elucidate the causal factors of these disorders often rely on either the analysis of existing medical records, worker compensation records (passive surveillance), or the surveying of workers with questionnaire and physical examination (active surveillance).

1986 Author(s):
LJ Fine
BA Silverstein
TJ Armstrong
CA Anderson
DS Sugano

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